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Physics - Horizontal forces

Horizontal forces

An object at rest or moving along a horizontal surface has no vertical
motion. This means that the net vertical force must be zero. This is
because the normal force (up) balances the weight force (down). In these
cases the horizontal forces acting will determine the object's motion. We
often do not draw the vertical forces in these cases, but if you are asked
to draw all the forces acting, you must include them.

For example, in the diagram below, there are two horizontal forces acting,
_F _to the right and friction to the left:

As the two forces are equal and opposite, the net force  is zero.
Therefore _a_ = 0 and _v_ = 0 or constant. When you apply a force to a
heavy object and it does not move, this means that friction is balancing
the force you provide. This also means that the force of friction varies
directly with the applied force, up to the point at which acceleration
occurs.

In another example where there are two horizontal forces acting and _F_ is
larger, the net force will be to the right and the acceleration will be to
the right.

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