Physics - The series circuit
The series circuit
When two or more components are connected in a chain they are said to be
in series.  Since there is only one possible path for current to take,
the current is the same throughout the circuit. The voltage supplied must
be completely used by the circuit components therefore the supply voltage
is equal to the sum of the voltages across each load in the circuit. This
is because any coulomb of charge having passed through the battery must
then pass through every item in the circuit in turn, giving up some of its
energy at each load. It is logical therefore, that the total resistance of
the circuit is the sum of the resistance of each item in the circuit.
When batteries are connected in series, a coulomb of charge would pass
through one battery after another. The total voltage supplied to the
circuit is therefore the sum of the voltages of each individual battery.
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