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Module 1: Principio de Le Chatelier

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Factores que afectan la posición de equilibrio

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XSIQ
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Chemistry - Factors that affect the position of equilibrium

Factors that affect the position of equilibrium

Reiterating Le Chatelier's principle: 'If a system at equilibrium is
disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or the concentration of one
of the components, the system will shift its equilibrium position so as to
counteract the effect of the disturbance'.

* Adding extra reactant / increasing the concentration of a reactant

Adding extra N2 or H2 to the system at equilibrium will result in the
production of more NH3 as the system moves to use up some of the added
reactant and establish a new position of equilibrium. The position of
equilibrium moves to the right.

The value of the equilibrium constant does not change.

* Removing some product / decreasing the concentration of a product

Removing NH3 from the system at equilibrium will result in the production
of more NH3 as the system moves to replace the lost NH3 and establish a new
position of equilibrium. The position of equilibrium moves to the right.

The value of the equilibrium constant does not change.

* Decreasing the pressure

Decreasing the pressure (increasing the volume) of the system at
equilibrium will result in some NH3 being used up as the system moves to
increase the pressure by producing more particles (in the larger volume),
and establish a new position of equilibrium. The position of equilibrium
moves to the side with more particles, i.e. to the left.

The value of the equilibrium constant does not change.

* Increasing the pressure

Increasing the pressure (decreasing the volume) of the system at
equilibrium will result in the production of more NH3 as the system moves
to reduce the pressure by decreasing the number of particles (in the
smaller volume), and establish a new position of equilibrium. The position
of equilibrium moves to the side with fewer particles, i.e. to the right.

The value of the equilibrium constant does not change.

* Decreasing the temperature

Decreasing the temperature of the system (removing energy from the system)
at equilibrium will result in the production of more NH3 as the system
moves to compensate for the loss of energy by favouring the
energy-releasing (exothermic) reaction and establish a new position of
equilibrium. The position of equilibrium moves to the right.

The value of the equilibrium constant increases.

* Increasing the temperature

Increasing the temperature of the system (adding energy to the system) at
equilibrium will result in some NH3 being used up as the system moves to
compensate for the added energy by favouring the energy-using (endothermic)
reaction and establish a new position of equilibrium. The position of
equilibrium moves to the left.

The value of the equilibrium constant decreases.

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