Biology - Tools and techniques of the biotechnologist
Tools and techniques of the biotechnologist
This resource covers a number of tools and techniques used by
biotechnologists. Let's begin with gel electrophoresis.
In gel electrophoresis the mixture of DNA  fragments and a stain are
placed in wells in a slab of agar gel which has electrodes at each end to
create an electric field.
As DNA molecules are negatively charged (because of the phosphate groups
of the nucleotides),  they move towards the positive end of the gel.
* As the smaller fragments move faster than the larger ones, the
* The size of each fragment and therefore the number of bases  in each
fragment, can be calculated by comparing the distance moved against
fragments of known length
* The DNA segment, which could be a gene, has been identified. This
technique does not identify the actual sequence of bases.
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