Biology - Mutations
If the mutation occurs in somatic cells  of organisms, the effect is
not inherited by offspring but is passed on only to its daughter cells -
cells which result from cell division (its cell line). If the mutation
occurs in gametes  (germline cells) then it is heritable. Mutations
which affect the ability of cells to regulate their own growth and
reproduction can cause cancer. In this case tumours may form and the normal
functioning of tissues may be so severely impaired that death occurs.
For example, cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder due to a mutation
 resulting in a single amino acid  being deleted from a chain of
1480. The faulty protein produced is unable to function properly and the
symptoms of CF result.
Variations  in the genotype  of organisms that reproduce sexually
result from two main causes:
* the reshuffling of existing genes  into new combinations
* mutations  which introduce new genetic material into the gene pool
 of the species.
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