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Module 1: Las hormonas de la planta y sus acciones

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XSIQ
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Biology - Adaptations

Adaptations

Cactus: waxy cuticle and low surface area/volume ratio reduces water
loss

_Xerophytic_ plants (lovers of dryness) have structural adaptations which
reduce water loss, including:

* waxy cuticles on the epidermis

* spiky shape

* reduced leaves - surface area in relation to volume is lower

* leaves that hang down and avoid direct exposure to the sun's rays

* tough woody tissues that withstand wilting

* hairy leaves which trap a thick layer of moist air around the leaf -
reduces water loss

* sunken stomata in hollows or pits which become saturated with water
vapour

* leaf rolling in dry conditions lowers the surface area

Other adaptations assisting survival during periods of water shortage
include:

* extensive underground root systems to tap water

* storage tissues in leaves and stems which act as reservoirs

* rapid life cycle - dormant seeds will only germinate in times of water
availability

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