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Module 1: Sistema nervioso

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Estructura y función de partes de la neurona

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Biology - Structure and Function of Neuron Parts

Structure and Function of Neuron Parts

The structure of neurons is related to function as detailed in the
following table:

cell body
contains organelles necessary to maintain cell processes

dendrites
extensions which allow stimuli to be received

axon
long extension of cell along which impulses pass; may be short or long
(1m)

length
facilitates uninterrupted transmission

axon branches
nerve (axon) endings

insulating sheath
(myelin sheath) creamy looking fatty cell which wraps around axon and
prevents loss of action potential (electrical insulation); present in white
matter of brain but not grey matter; individual cells wrap around the axon
leaving little gaps where the plasma membrane of the axon is exposed

dendron
transmits impulses from receptor towards cell body in sensory neurons

receptors
different kinds sensory nerve endings which detect different stimuli
for example thermoreceptor - heat and cold; chemoreceptor - chemicals
(taste, smell); photoreceptor - light; mechanoreceptor - pressure, tension;
others for pain, touch

synapse (gap)
allows communication between different neurons that is different
pathways; vesicles contain neurotransmitters which, under stimulation,
release them. Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse, bind to
receptors on the receiving membrane. The ion channels open causing an
electrical response; channels close and the neurotransmitters are
deactivated by the action of enzymes. The whole process takes time (but
still fast!), so a pathway with many synapses will slow transmission.

motor end plates
knobs at end of axon branches

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