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Hello everyone, today we are going to discuss the play Dr Faustus by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe, the play was a great hit on the stage when it is first appeared in 1594 and remains relevant for its themes of knowledge and it is an application, personal ambition versus social limitations and the stance of atheism in a highly religious society to name a few. The play is a tragedy in five acts that narrates the fall of a learned scholar called Dr Faustus who makes a deal with the devil to access cryptic knowledge in exchange for his soul. The play ends with him dying and being dragged to hell. (Refer Slide Time: 00:57) Christopher Marlowe was one of the major figures in the Elizabethan theatre, he was part of a group of playwrights now called the University Wits, these are playwrights who had access to university education Marlowe also helped perfect the blank verse on the English stage this inspired Ben Jonson to refer to his writing as Marlowe’s mighty line. (Refer Slide Time: 01:22) Now let us start by looking at Christopher Marlowe’s life and history. (Refer Slide Time: 01:28) Christopher Marlowe was born in 1564 in Canterbury England his parents were John and Katherine Marlowe, he came from a humble beginning as his father earned his livelihood as a shoemaker, he completed his early education at the King’s School in Canterbury, he was then awarded the Archbishop Parker scholarship that got him a place at Corpus Christi College in the Cambridge University. In 1584 he graduated as Bachelor of Arts, he received an extension of three more years to receive Holy Orders, throughout Marlowe’s career he was rumoured to be a government spy his patron Thomas Walsingham was related to Sir Francis Walsingham the chief minister of Queen Elizabeth the first. Marlowe died at an early age of 29 on May 30th in 1593 when he was fatally stabbed through the eye by Ingram Frizer at a house in Deptford. This has inspired the novel A Murder in Deptford by Anthony Burgess. (Refer Slide Time: 02:39) Let us now take a look at Marlowe’s literary career. (Refer Slide Time: 02:44) Marlowe is considered to have written six plays translated poems to English and completed two long poems, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love and Hero and Leander. (Refer Slide Time: 02:56) Now let us take a closer look at Marlowe is plays. (Refer Slide Time: 03:00) By the time of his death at the age of 29 Marlowe had already completed four major plays; these include the two parts of Tamburlaine, the Jew of Malta, Edward the II and Dr Faustus. He is also credited as the author of two other minor plays Dido the Queen of Carthage and The Massacre at Paris, his connection to the two minor plays can be partial and he may have co-authored them with other playwrights. (Refer Slide Time: 03:32) We can broadly sort Marlowe’s themes into three categories, the Lust for power, Overreaching heroes that are trapped because of their will to seize this power and constraints in social Mobility that ultimately render their mission futile. (Refer Slide Time: 03:48) One of the dominant themes in Marlowe’s plays is a quest for power, Marlowe questions the nature of power itself through his critique of the protagonists in the play and their relationship with power, his heroes are often of humble origin who overreach their social standards by aiming higher than the position stipulated for them Edward II evidences how power can easily shift hands and the requirement for the restraint of power for the betterment of a community. Tamburlaine is about a warrior from low birth who ascends to power and in turn abuses that power. The Jew Barabbas similarly suffers a fall due to his misuse of power. Faustus starts as a renowned scholar who develops imperial ambitions and gets into a contract with demonic forces to gain knowledge and a standard of living that was previously beyond hismeans. Marlowe himself witnessed the constraints of social mobility as he made his way up in society having started from a humble origin. (Refer Slide Time: 04:53) Let us look at the background and summary of the play Dr Faustus. (Refer Slide Time: 04:58) The play Dr Faustus was first performed by the Lord Admirals men on 30th September 1594. This was exactly 16 months after Marlowe’s death; the play was an instant hit on the English stage. The papers of Philip Henslowe who was the owner of the Rose Theatre shows that there were already 13 shows performed by the end of the year 1595. The source of the play was an older Faust legend that made its way to England through translations. (Refer Slide Time: 05:29) We currently have two different texts of the play available to us the A text that was published in 1604 and the B text that was published in 1616, the B text is longer than the A text by 676 lines as it contains later editions from William Bird and Samuel Rowley who were paid 4 pounds by Henslowe for these editions. The play is written in blank verse which means that the lines are rhymed iambic pentameters. (Refer Slide Time: 06:01) The main characters in Dr Faustus are Faustus himself his servant Wagner, Faustus’ friends Valdes and Cornelius who initiate him into the dark arts, the Good and the Evil Angels, the Old Man and Mephastophilis. The devil who attends on Faustus, we also have a host of minor characters such as scholars, Lucifer, Beelzebub, the clown, Robin, Rafe and some royal characters such as the Cardinal of Lorraine, Emperor Charles five and the Duke and Duchess of Vanholt. (Refer Slide Time: 06:38) Dr Faustus begins with a narration by the Chorus that makes us aware of the upcoming events in the play, he is compared to Icarus who flew too close to the Sun and consequently had a fall as the act melted his waxen wings. Faustus is at the forefront of Renaissance knowledge but he still feels discontent by the worldly laws they follow. Soon we find Faustus in his study where he is disillusioned by the limitations in various departments of knowledge such as logic, medicine, law and divinity. He has mastered them all as he claims that he has rid cities of pledge and his students say that his renunciation after defeating an opponent in the debate always echoed in the university chambers but in hope of greater glory Faustus seeks to learn the art of necromancy. He then summons Cornelius and Valdes who like the text hints have already convinced Faustus of the benefit is of learning necromancy or black magic. Faustus thus conjures of Mephistopheles they get into a pact where Faustus pledges his soul to Lucifer, Mephistopheles is to serve Faustus for 24 years in exchange for his soul thereafter. The Good angel and the Old Man entreat Faustus repeatedly to get out of this bargain but Faustus pays them no heed. He then uses the next 24 years performing petty magic such as making horns grow on the head of a knight, duping a horse salesman, playing tricks on the Pope and getting grapes out of season for a pregnant Duchess. He forgets the lofty goals he had set for himself and as his days end, Faustus indulges in graver sins like bestiality he finally gets dragged to hell and even in his last words he fails to invoke God his last words are Ah! Mephistopheles. (Refer Slide Time: 08:36) Now let us talk about the major themes in the play. (Refer Slide Time: 08:39) One of the key themes in Dr Faustus is knowledge and the boundaries society sets for such knowledge. The play starts with Faustus arguing for and then against the conventional forms of knowledge available in early modern England. Faustus is continuously discouraged by the moral authorities in the play namely the Good Angel and the Old Man to pursue his path in black magic. This echoes the prohibition of God in the Bible to Adam and Eve that they should not eat the food from the tree of knowledge, this theme is also strengthened by the motif of books in the play. One of the primary features of the early modern period is the use of printing press that made bulk production of books possible thus we have Faustus in the first scene glancing through a private collection of his books an act that would not have been possible a few centuries earlier as books were very rare and were hardly owned by private individuals. The same motif recurs when Mephistopheles hands a book to Faustus that allegedly contained all subjects in one, this could be a reference to the new Encyclopedia copies that were being printed around this time. Faustus’ final attempts to salvage himself is also crying where he states that he will burn all his books, the experience will eventually become an important aspect of knowledge in the play it can be considered that Marlowe’s juxtaposition of serious scenes with buffoonery is an attempt to point out the ridiculousness of the grim way religion, treats and condemns something as fundamental as a will to know. (Refer Slide Time: 10:18) The early modern period was also a time of strict social hierarchies and we can see the same being reflected in the relations that exist between Faustus, Mephistopheles and Lucifer in the play. (Refer Slide Time: 10:30) While Mephistopheles serves Faustus he is bound to Lucifer and serves Faustus only as Lucifer permits him to do so. Faustus also overreaches himself by aiming to be held in the same esteem as the royalty in society this is the reason that Faustus is compared to Icarus in the play. Marlowe himself was witness to these constraints in society as he could only reach to a certain prestige in the community through his learning due to the laws that he breaks on earth Faustus is doomed forever to be the slave of Lucifer in Hell. (Refer Slide Time: 11:07) Religion plays a critical role in Dr Faustus as the final authority that settles the moral imperatives in society. (Refer Slide Time: 11:15) England by the time of the play had moved on to become a Protestant state by breaking away from Catholicism we continuously encounter multiple jabs at Catholicism t the play such as when Faustus asks Mephistopheles to appear as a friar as that guy he says suit a devil best. We also have the scene where Faustus plays tricks on the Pope in the room there are also derogatory references to the Eucharist selling of indulgences and the purgatory as these Catholic features were dropped by the protestants. However, Faustus is still held accountable for breaking the core tenets of Protestantism as well. His denial of God, dismissal of Hell as a mere story and the breaking of the sanctity of marriage by marrying a devil dressed as Helen of Troy make Faustus an ideal candidate for damnation Marlowe thus uses Faustus to ridicule the tenets of established religion as our morality is always shifting based on religious edicts and not the other way around. Mephistopheles also plays a critical role here as the only character that can honestly tell Faustus his loss as he had seen both heaven and hell the narratives of the other moral guides thus become one-sided. (Refer Slide Time: 12:35) The corporeality of punishment and damnation is a recurring trope in Dr Faustus. (Refer Slide Time: 12:41) We see that different omens work on the body of Faustus to dissuade himself from carrying out his bargain with the devil, for example, Faustus’ blood congeals when he is about to sign the deed with Mephistopheles and the words homo which means run man appears on his arm. Mephistopheles tells Faustus of a hell that is a mental condition, a psychological pain caused by the fact that the fallen Devils can never behold heaven again. At the same time the devils physically threatened him and at the end of the play we see him being torn asunder by the devil is before his spirit is dragged to hell, experience then comes to play a crucial role in the play as Faustus constantly remains in denial even after Mephistopheles tells him that hell and heaven are indeed real, knowledge is not adequate to convince Faustus of the mistakes he is making and he must experience directly the pains of hell before he can see the fault in his ways. So when Faustus tells Mephistopheles that he does not believe in hell Mephistopheles tells him that he is free to think so till experience changes his mind and Faustus must experience the pain of hell both in his body and conscience till he can come to a proper conclusion regarding the outcome of his deeds. (Refer Slide Time: 14:07) The play makes explicit references to the deal between Faustus and Lucifer or Mephistopheles as a legal contract the sacrilege of Faustus’ deal with the devil has a direct correlation with secular world of law-making, Mephistopheles stresses that he cannot be ofservice to Faustus until or unless he signs the deed Faustus also reads out the clauses in the deed while signing it. It is interesting to know that both Faustus and Mephistopheles hold a written contract in such high regard being supernatural entities their inclination to have a written bond is an indication of the codification and standardization of law that took place in the early modern period. With the advent of Protestantism, the free will debate started to rage among theological scholars in Europe. (Refer Slide Time: 15:01) The exponent of Protestantism Martin Luther believed that humans were devoid of free will that some were chosen to be saved whereas the others were meant to be doomed. The early modern scholar Erasmus, however, thought differently and had an argument with Luther that free will indeed exist. The protestant disbelief towards free will was further codified by Calvin and his doctrine of predestination in Europe thus Faustus’ inability to repent can be viewed as a sign that he was meant to be doomed. The moment Faustus signs the deal with Mephistopheles we get the impression that he has already become one of the Damned his constant inability to repent for his sins also hint towards the fact that Faustus indeed was irredeemable and he was predestined to be damned. (Refer Slide Time: 15:53) Let us now take a look at some of the historical texts inspired by Dr Faustus and the Faust myth. (Refer Slide Time: 16:01) The play Dr Faustus was based on the Faust myth from Germany which was in turn inspired by the real-life of George of Helmstadt who was an astrologer, physician and magician. Faustus is a scholar at Wittenberg the same University where Luther started his Protestant revolution. Wittenberg was a hot seat for religious debate and progressive thinking. We see that Shakespeare’s protagonist Hamlet is also from the same University. The Faust myth and the Faustian bargain has further created multiple literary and cultural adaptations of which Faust by Goethe and Frankenstein by Mary Shelley remain prominent. Frankenstein tells a story similar to Faustus where the scientist breaks the laws of nature by bringing back the dead to life. These figures are thus compared to the Greek archetypes of Icarus and Prometheus these heroes tend to overreach themselves and in turn questions set by society on knowledge and personal ambition. (Refer Slide Time: 17:06) Now let us look at some modern-day interpretation of the Faustian myth. (Refer Slide Time: 17:11) Our contemporary times have reinvented the Faustian myth about capitalism and the limit is of ambition it creates and makes available to the common man, capitalism and the free market have created the impression that there are no longer any boundaries to what a person can earn or gain in terms of social prestige. The predominance of money as a marker of status in society has made economic pursuits more important than they should be. So we encountered characters that sell their soul to the devil or in this case modern capitalism in exchange of a flourishing career and a comfortable material existence we can watch the movies The Devil’s Advocate and bedazzled in these terms. The black museum's episode of the Netflix show black mirror also portrays such exchanges, the show gives us the character of Rolo Haynes a modern-day Mephistopheles who gets into legal contracts with people who have no hope of salvation or people who sadistically enjoy the pains of others in suffering to use them for scientific experiments, Haynes is himself grabbed by one of his own devices by the end of the show thus reasserting the Faustian idea of tormented devils tormenting others that is the end of our course on Dr Faustus, thanks for watching. Hello everyone, good morning and welcome to today's session of this course, where we discuss a renowned and celebrated short story by Ryunosuke Akutagawa, titled 'In a Grove'. This was originally written in Japanese and it has been translated widely into almost all languages across the world. It is considered as the best known fiction piece as far as this field of world literature is concerned. Ryunosuke Akutagawa was a Japanese writer, he lived from 1892 till 1927. He is quite rightfully considered as the father of Japanese short stories. In Japan, there is even a premier literary award named after Akutagawa, it is known as the Akutagawa prize, so that is a kind of reputation, the literary reputation and stature that Akutagawa enjoys in Japanese literary tradition. He died very young, he committed suicide at the age of 35, but he is still considered as the greatest of the Taishu modernists. Taishu period is the period during which Emperor Taishu ruled and more than it is considered as appealed of democracy and of flourishing of popular culture, especially from 1910s till 1930s. Akutagawa wrote mostly during these decades when the spirit of democracy and the spirit of popular culture was celebrated much. Which is perhaps why even today when we read his works, they do have a they do have a contemporariness to it, they do not sound archaic, it is not far removed from the worlds that we are familiar with. There is a familiarity that we can find with most of Akutagawa's works. Many critics feel that it is of universal nature as well. The short story that we propose to discuss today 'In a Grove', it was written in 1922 during the modernist period. The short story 'In a Grove's ' claim to fame also rests on the fact that at later point, Akira Kurosawa, he had made a movie version of this, that was in 1951 and the movie is the well-known world-renowned movie Rashomon. So, 'In a Grove' is an early modernist short story. It is in the form of a collection of testimonies. The story has been made deliberately ambiguous. If you try to find out what exactly this is about and what is the truth value and what the meaning of the story exactly is, it, you may not be entirely successful. In this story we find 3 varying accounts of the murder of a samurai, Japanese warrior and it is about the examination of the distortion of the truth. We also have a multiple viewpoints through which the story gets narrated. But at the same time, there are these 2 elements coming together. We have a traditional value system in place, there is also the notion of the role of honour in the samurai codes. But these 2 are not necessarily celebrated in the short story, we will begin to see that. There is a way in which Akutagawa also tries to subvert some of these prevalent notions by not really being straightforward by not really being conventional in his attitude towards this narration. There are 7 sections in that short story, as you can see in this excerpt. The 7 sections are titled in a very matter-of-fact manner as, almost as often it is a part of legal document. The 1st one is the testimony of a woodcutter questioned by a high police Commissioner. The 2nd one, the testimony of a travelling Buddhist priest questioned by high police Commissioner, then the testimony of a policeman questioned by a high police Commissioner, 4th one, the testimony of an old woman questioned by a high police Commissioner. Of the 7, these 4 sections are the testimonies of people who are not directly involved in this crime, which is the murder of a samurai, his corpse, his body has been found. The next 3 sections are, the confession of a woman who has come to the Shimizu temple, then the story of the murdered man, as told through a medium and finally Tajomaru's confession. The last 3 testimonies, one of which is the story of the murdered man told by himself through a medium, the last 3 are narrated by people who have been involved in this murder directly or indirectly. What is particularly interesting about this short story is its mode of narration. There are multiple narrators, there are 7 narrators to be precise and it is not in the form of a dialogue, we only get this sense that they are narrating this to a police High Commissioner who is questioning them. And we also get to know about the sense of audience over there. But there is no dialogue, there is no way to understand who else on the other side who is listening to this story who is asking questions and we also do not get to know how the story has been interpreted. Who is the one who has edited this, the one who has scripted this, we have no way of knowing those things. Through in all of these sections, in which we have multiple narrators, it is narrated through a 1st person narrator. But we also know that these are all unreliable narrators. Unreliable narrator was a term introduced by Wayne C Booth, in his Rhetoric of Fiction. The unreliable narrator, the presence of the unreliable narrator, the presence of the unreliable narrator also tells us that we do not have an omniscient point of view, we do not have an omniscient narrator who seems to know everything. Instead of that what we have here is a distant and objective narration. And in a very matter-of-fact tone as the titles, the titles of different sections suggest, it is almost like a legal document. And each of these sections is framed in such a way that it almost appears like a police interview, we begin to notice, there are cues given in the short story where we understand that the narrator is responding to particular questions. And what totally challenges, the claim to any kind of truth value is the fact that every character ends up saying something that is refuted by another. If you try to put this story together if you try to come up with this larger story from the smaller sections, we begin to know that there are several inherent contradictions, sometimes trivial and sometimes grave and there is a way in which the story leaves this entire episode of this murder open-ended, by not allowing us to zero in on one truth version. And in these sections, through which the story is progressing, there is no interaction between the characters. The interaction, if at all that these characters have is only with this police commissioner who is questioning them. And it is said that these narratives are termed as solo narratives, where they are only testifying. The characters are also not well-round, they are not well-formed and this is deliberately done. So they are mostly flat and one-dimensional characters, except for the mother, the woman who claims to be the mother of the missing girl, except for her, we do not find the characters even displaying any kind of emotions. What Akutagawa has done in this story is not to spend more time fleshing out the characters but to give us a lot of details about the context, about the physicality of the surroundings, so that from that we can perhaps begin to infer whether the characters are saying the truth or not, whether they are contradicting each other or not. Or more importantly just to introduce the reader also to this crime scene by giving us more details, but making us also one of the witnesses, making us also perhaps one of the narrators who are not part of this plot. Let us try to get a closer look at the different narrators who are presented through these different sections. 1st one is a woodcutter, he is the one who had 1st found the body and he is a mere witness. But when we analyse the story and try to fit in the maybe the missing gaps and puzzles, we also begin to wonder whether he was the one who also stole the sword, which was there in the body, in the samurai's body. And we have a travelling Buddhist priest who claims to have seen the couple and we do not have any other details, other than the fact that the Buddhist priest had merely seen them passing through. But then there are these unanswered questions of what the Buddhist was doing there and about what the Buddhist priest was doing there and also his testimony, is not entirely reliable because he also has certain distorted views of good and evil. There is a policeman who boasts about having arrested Tajomaru because that was also a significant milestone in his career. We really do not know whether he had successfully overpowered Tajomaru or was whether it was just a mere accident, which led him to catch this bandit. The old woman who claims to be Masago's mother, Masago is the missing girl, the wife of the man who is dead. And the old woman also identifies the dead man as Takehiko and that is the man who married her daughter. And she is the only one who displays some emotion during this process of narration, she breaks down, she comes across as being emotional. But we also find that she is being made to exaggerate certain things, as we will shortly see. And all of these people we find these people that they lie, primarily to bolster their egos. And they are all motivated by self-interest and self-deception and that makes all of their testimonies suspect. The woman who comes to the temple, who is the wife of the dead man, she claims to have killed her husband, Takehiko, after being raped by a thief and this was to save her husband's honour she says because her husband had to witness the wife being raped and he was helpless over there. And she also claims that perhaps to give more credibility, more believability to her version of the story, she also claims that she attempted suicide multiple times but she was not successful in that. And she also successfully presents herself as a weak victim, the one who does not have any kind of agency, who was nearly a victim of the situation. But one is not too sure when we go through the many details that she presents to us. The murdered man, he also speaks to us through a medium and he claims that no one killed him, he says that he killed himself and this is, this could also be because of the this reason for, this would also be because he is trying to preserve his honour, because it is more honourable to kill oneself than being killed while tied to a tree than claiming that his wife killed him or thief or local bandit killed him. So he is also perhaps lying, one is not too sure. And finally, we have Tajomaru, the bandit, the thief in the question and his claims, he has another exaggerated version of how heroic his deeds were. And he claims that he killed this man in a duel in a very noble way, after violating his wife. And he does not see that act, the violation itself as a major crime and he also presents the story in such a way that his heroism, his nobility, his sympathetic attitude to the victim, they begin to get more accentuated.