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Chapter 7: Infant CPR and Choking


Video 7a: Introduction to Infant CPR
Script: Welcome to the introduction to Infant CPR. In this video, we will discuss what to do when giving CPR to an infant, that is 0 to 12 months of age.

CPR for infants is almost identical to CPR for children. Infants more often have a breathing problem than an actual heart problem. It is important to begin CPR immediately and perform five sets of CPR before going to get additional help. One set of CPR consists of 30 compressions and two breaths.

If the infant is unresponsive and not breathing or only gasping for air, perform CPR.
An infant that does nothing when you tap or talk loudly is considered unresponsive. In the case of unresponsiveness, CPR needs to be performed.

When giving CPR to an infant, make sure the scene is safe.

Tap the infant’s shoulders to determine if they’re unresponsive.

Yell for help. If a second rescuer is available to help, have them call 911 and get an AED.
When the second rescuer returns, have them follow the AED prompts, apply the AED pads, and help with CPR.

Check the infant’s breathing.

If not responding and not breathing or only gasping, then give five sets of 30 compressions and two breaths.

Call 911 if the second rescuer has not already done so.

Resume CPR and give compressions and breaths.

This concludes our lesson on Introduction to Infant CPR. Next, we will review the steps of Chest Compressions in Infant CPR.


Video 7b: Chest Compressions in Infant CPR
Script: Welcome to the introduction to Infant CPR. In this video, we will discuss the steps of how to do chest compressions in infants.

CPR for infants is almost identical to CPR for children, making steps for compressions just as similar.

In infants, push hard and fast as you would in a child or adult receiving CPR. Position the infant on a firm, hard surface to make giving CPR easier.

Then, move any clothing away from the chest.

Place two fingers of one hand on the breastbone right below the nipple line.

Push straight down approximately 1.5 inches (that is 4 cm) at a rate of 100 to 120 beats per minute.

Let the chest recoil to its normal positions after every compression.

Performing compressions correctly is essential and can be physically tiring. If someone else can help, switch off every two minutes while minimizing interruptions during compressions.

This concludes our lesson on Chest Compressions in Infant CPR. Next, we will review the steps of Giving Breaths in Infant CPR


Video 7c: Giving Breaths in Infant CPR
Script: Welcome to Giving Breaths in Infant CPR. In this video, we will discuss the steps of how to give breaths to infants.

Like children, many cases of cardiac arrest in infants are primarily due to respiratory problems. Giving breaths and administering chest compressions are important for infants receiving CPR. A good breath will cause the chest to rise.

To give breaths, first, open the infant’s airway by putting one hand on their forehead and placing your fingers on the bony part of the chin. Then, gently tilt their head back to a neutral position while lifting the chin.

Be careful not to tilt the head too far back as this can block the airway. Be sure to press on the bony part of the chin and not the soft part under the chin as pressing the soft part may also block the airway.

To give a breath, hold the airway open, take a deep breath, and seal your mouth around the infant’s mouth and nose.

Blow for one second and watch the chest rise. Very little volume or force is required to inflate an infant’s lungs. Blowing too much or too hard will damage the infant’s lungs. Only a gentle exhale for a tiny puff of air is required for an infant.

Repeat for a second breath.
If unable to cover both mouth and nose entirely with your mouth, use the following method for rescue breathing:
1. Open the airway using the head-tilt/ chin-lift maneuver.
2. Pinch the infant’s nose closed. Create a seal using your lips to surround the infant’s mouth.

If the chest does not rise after the first breath, let the head go back to normal position and then re-open the airway by tilting head and lifting the chin. Try to get a breath in while watching for chest rise. Do not interrupt compressions for any more than ten seconds while giving breaths.

This concludes our lesson on Giving Breaths in Infant CPR. Next, we will review Mask Use in Infants.


Video 7d: Mask Use in Infants
Script: Welcome to Mask Use in Infant. In this video, we will discuss the steps of mask use in infants.

Giving breaths in CPR is generally safe. However, if a mask is available, you should use it. The mask fits over the infant’s mouth and nose. Many masks have a pointed end, which should go over the infant’s nose.
Make sure the mask fits properly; if it is too large, a proper seal cannot be obtained and your efforts to deliver breaths will be ineffective.

To give breaths using a mask, first place the mask over the infant’s mouth and nose.

Then, open the airway by performing the head-tilt-chin-lift maneuver.

Ensure a good seal between the mask and the face.

Give a breath for more than one second and watch the chest rise.

This concludes our lesson on Mask Use in Infants. Next, we will review Activating EMS for Infants.


Video 7e: Activating EMS for Infants
Script: Welcome to the lesson on Activating EMS, or emergency medical services, for Infants. In this video, we will discuss the steps to call 911 when attending to ill or injured infants.

Always make sure that the scene is safe when approaching an infant.

Tap the infant’s shoulders and ask them if they are okay. If they don’t respond or react, they are considered unresponsive. An unresponsive infant will not move when you touch them. They will not cry or make any sounds, and their body will be limp.

Yell for help and call 911 using a cell phone. If a cell phone is not available, send someone else to call 911 if possible.

If you are alone, begin five cycles of CPR (that is about two minutes of CPR) before calling 911.

This concludes our lesson on Activating EMS for Infants. Next, we will review Choking in Infants.


Video 7f: Choking in Infants
Script: Welcome to the lesson on Choking in Infants. In this video, we will discuss choking in infants and signs of choking that you should look for.

Choking occurs when food or a foreign object is stuck in the throat and blocks the airway. Infants often put small objects in their mouth and are at an increased risk of choking. Severe choking requires quick action. Immediately perform back slaps and chest thrusts.

Refer to Table 3 in the CPR manual for details on degrees of obstructions, signs of choking, and actions you should take to help infants in choking situations.

This concludes our lesson on Choking in Infants. Next, we will review Relief of Choking in Infants.


Video 7g: Relief of Choking in Infants
Script: Welcome to the lesson on Relief of Choking in Infants. In this video, we will discuss the steps of back slaps and chest thrusts.

To relieve a choking infant, first, hold them in your lap.

Put the infant face down and the head lower than the chest. The infant should be resting on your forearm. Put your forearm on your thigh.

Support the infant’s head and neck with your hand and be sure to avoid putting pressure on the throat.

Give five back slaps between the infant’s shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.

Using both hands and arms, turn the infant face up, so they are now resting on your other arm, which should now be resting on your thigh.
Using two fingers in the same spot as for CPR, provide five quick chest thrusts.

If the obstruction is not relieved, turn the infant face down on your other forearm and repeat the process.

Continue until the infant begins to breathe or becomes unresponsive.

Try to keep the infant’s head lower than the body when performing back slaps and chest thrusts. If you can see a foreign object in the infant’s mouth and can easily remove it, then do so. Avoid blindly sweeping the mouth with a finger as it may push a foreign object deeper into the airway. Watch and feel for breathing to begin.

If the infant stops responding, position them on a firm, flat surface, and yell for help. Check for breathing and begin CPR. After 30 compressions, open the airway and look for a foreign object. If visible, remove it and attempt to ventilate with two breaths.

If the infant does not respond or begin breathing, then continue to provide CPR until additional help arrives. You will know an infant has become unresponsive as they will stop moving and squirming in your arms and the body will become limp. In this case, begin CPR immediately with chest compressions followed by giving breaths.

This concludes our lesson on Relief of Choking in Infants. Thank you for choosing NHCPS as your provider.