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Module 1: Indicadores de desarrollo

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In today’sclass let us discuss about gender analysis and some of the gender sensitive indicators which have these days become integral to development studies and development studies research.Now let me begin by saying with the help of this slide here that the theoretical perspectives on women today have changed in a number of ways and influence development cooperation with methodological implications for how women in development and gender relations are addressed in development studies.Some of the examples of how these theoretical perspectives have changed are showing on your side now.For example, we have moved from an undifferentiated population of women to the relationship between men and women that is from women in development to gender perspectives which incorporate social relations and differentiation between women and men and between women.So, which means that not all women and not all men are equal.Similarly, we have also moved from the single role of women as reproduces to the triple role of women that is with roles of reproductive, productive and community managing work.We have also moved from different approaches which I will elaborate in small details subsequently.We have moved from the approaches of women in development to gender in development and therefore from practical gender needs to strategic gender needs.We have also moved from women seen as victims to women seen as actors and agents from atop-down to a bottom-up perspective.And the unit of analysis has changed from an emphasis on the individual woman and the household to racially and ethnically distinct groups of women and men and the relations between them.So, given this context in today's class, we will look at some of the operationalization issues surrounding gender analysis or when we make a gender analysis integral to our development research question.So, what we will cover in today's class is as follows.We will first look at what does this movement from women in development to gender mainstreaming,gender equality, or gender in development mean?We will also look at gender analysis and some of the approaches to gender mainstreaming,although I will not go into the details of gender mainstreaming.Many of these things have been covered in some of the earlier MOOCs courses.For example, students interested might like to go through some of the lectures on theNPTEL MOOCs course on growth and development which has elaborate discussions on gender budgeting and gender mainstreaming and so on.In this class we will also highlight on some of the gender sensitive indicators surrounding the issues of poverty and power.And also look at some of the contesting perspectives with respect to mainstreaming and women's empowerment.Now let us first try and understand this movement from women in development to gender mainstreaming.Now over a period of time there have been changing approaches to women in development and this has been illustrated through an interdependence between various theories and methods in research.For example, the UN system has promoted gender issues through global summits in gender policies,gender training materials and so on.There has been a large contribution, significant contribution of various gender analysts andfeminist researchers.For example, Naila Kabeer, Ghita Sen, Mary Anderson towards the adoption of gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment in international development cooperation by multilaterals,bilateral agencies and NGOs.Now it is here that let me also give you a sense of what does this movement from women in development to gender and development approaches mean.There is plenty of literature in this area now WID to GAD.Now basically in the 1960s, and in the 1970s, a number of literatures came out which talked about the prevalence of poverty among different individuals across the world or the population that is inhabiting in poverty.And If we enter into a gender disaggregated analysis with regard to poverty, it was found that more women than men were found to be living in an impoverished stage.And therefore, there came in a concept which was referred to as feminization of poverty and it was also found that more women and children were in impoverished state then menin poverty.And therefore, various associated concepts came in with regard to intra-household distribution of resources and whether household as a unit of analysis should be taken up for further research or we should focus on individuals as a unit of analysis such that the intra-household distribution of resources can be properly captured in development research questions.Now it is during this time that various feminists and various other agents of development, international development agencies came up with the concept of women in development.Therefore, focusing on welfare programs and various other interventions that could lead towards bringing or pulling women out of the situation of impoverishment.However, with time this approach was criticized and therefore the concept of gender and development came up which started challenging the stereotypical notions of the gender roles provided to menand women in households.And therefore, came the concepts of what is referred to as practical gender needs and strategic gender needs.So, the women in development approach focused more on practical gender needs and the gender and development approach focused more on strategic gender needs.These are some things that we will see in small details in some time.So, the dominant gender analysis frameworks reflect empirical evidence from development cooperation in different societies over the years.And the gender discourse as I just mentioned has transitioned from WID to GAD.And it is in this context that you see various world conferences on women, for example, theUnited Nations fourth world conference on women in Beijing in 1995 adopted the Beijing Platform for action with global agreement that gender equality is the goal, mainstreaming gender equality is the strategy.So, with respect to mainstreaming gender equality we have various concepts such as gender budgeting which is one of the examples of how gender related budgets can be made and gender mainstreaming can take place.So, the mainstreaming strategy basically aimed to situate gender equality issues at the centre of broad policy decisions, institutional structures and resource allocations with respect to development goals and processes.Now there are two main perspectives with regard to gender mainstreaming strategies.One is mainstreaming strategies with respect to incorporating gender policies into conventional project and programmed work.For example, providing affirmative action with respect to women being brought into the fire from a policy focus.And the second perspective was with respect to agenda setting or strategies which aim to create the conditions under which women and men can challenge conventional patterns and structural inequalities and start to redefine gender initiatives.Now as I was saying that there are different policy approaches, different approaches to centralizing gender equality and women’s issues in development research questions,and particularly with respect to the third world women there have been different policy approaches.Over a period of time international development cooperation or international development agencies,development practitioners have come up with numerous approaches and it is difficult to summarize them all into one slide.However, an attempt can be made to look at some of the important policy focuses with respect to how international development agencies have approached third world women.Now, let us make an attempt here.So, in this slide we have made this division with respect to the progress in approaches on the heads of issues, welfare, equity, antipoverty, efficiency and empowerment.At the bottom of this matrix you would see my reference to PLN- the practical gender needs focusing on women in development approach and SGN or strategic gender needs focusing on gender and development approach.So PGN basically are needs that are identified by women and men which arise out of the customarygender division of labour.For example, in the customary gender division of labour we know that most of the socialreproduction work or the care economy is managed by the women and the productive economy, socalled production economy is managed by the men.At least this is the general conception or the assumptions that we base our analysison.And with regard to what are the gender needs arising because of this customary gender divisionof labour is what is addressed by practical gender needs.Strategic gender needs on the other hand reflect a challenge to the customary gender relationsand imply changes in relationships of power and control between women and men, where onechallenges that whether it is solely the responsibility of women to take care of the care economyor women’s roles also enter into the production economy, community management and so on andso forth.So, these are things that are addressed by these different approaches.Now let us look at this slide from left to right starting with the origins of these approaches.Now when we look at it from the welfarist perspective, the earliest approach was thatof the residual model of social welfare under colonial administration, focus on modernization,accelerated growth, economic development model which meant that as economic growth takesplace, as economic development take place every person in the society would benefitout of it irrespective of whether they are men or women and children.However, when we moved to the concept of equity, the original women in development approachfound itself facing various challenges particularly with respect to the failure of modernization,influence of Boserup and First World Feminist on Percy Amendment, declaration of UN decadefor women.These are all issues that try to address these challenges.Because increasingly it was seeing that economic growth or the top-down approaches of development and growth have not benefited women equally as they would have done the menfolk.With respect to antipoverty, the second women in development approach toned-down equity because of criticism and it linked to redistribution with growth and basic needs.Efficiency, third and now predominant women in development approach is deterioration in world economy and empowerment.Most recent approach arose out of the failure of equity approach, third world women’sfeminist writing and grassroots organizations.Now what was the period in which it was most popular, the 1950s to 1970s it was most popular.The welfare approach was most popular.But it is still widely used.Between 1975 and 85, there were attempts to adopt it during and since women’s decade.1970s onwards there was still limited popularity, post 1980s which is now the most popular approach and 1975 onwards it accelerated during 1980s and still limited popularity empowerment issues.With respect to purpose, the welfarist approach try to bring women into development as bettermothers.The equity approach to gain equity for women in the development process.Anti Poverty focused on ensuring that poor women increase their productivity.Therefore, you would see a number of antipoverty programs doing the rounds during the decades of the 1980s particularly where the focus for example the microfinance institutions,microcredit and so on.Where the focus was on ensuring that poor women increased productivity and that is how they will be pulled out of the situation of poverty.Efficiency to ensure development is more efficient and effective and empowerment to empower women through greater self-reliance.With respect to the issue of needs of women met and roles recognized.So, to meet practical gender needs in reproductive role, the welfarist tradition focused on meeting practical gender needs in reproductive role relating particularly to food aid, malnutrition and family planning.The equity approach focused more on strategic gender needs in terms of triple roles directly through stage top-down intervention giving political and economic autonomy by reducing inequality with men.Anti Poverty tried to meet practical gender needs and productive role toward income particularly in small scale income generating projects.The efficiency approach tried to meet practical gender needs in context of declining social services by relying in all three roles of women and elasticity of women’s time.And therefore, there was a lot of focus during this period, the early 1990s on time burden,time poverty, time use surveys and so on.And with respect to empowerment there was an effort to reach strategic gender needs in terms of triple role indirectly through bottom up mobilization around practical gender needs as means to confront oppression.So, this is basically a very complex framework within which this needs to be analysed.But this is how in very crudely put various approaches with respect to women in development and gender and development has progressed over the period of last three or four decades.Now let us come to the issue of gender analysis and approaches to gender mainstreaming.Now what is the purpose of gender analysis?Let us begin with this question.The purpose of gender analysis is to understand the mechanism underlying both dominant development problems and policy, program and project interventions in terms of their implications for women and men and for the relationship between them.I have already stated in the beginning that when we are looking at gender analysis weare obviously looking at gender disaggregated information.And how men and women are affected differently because of certain interventions, because of certain policies or because of a certain situation.So now let us have a look at what are the gender mainstreaming elements, they may be summarized as follows.They are showing on your slide.So, some of the elements are as follows, one is clear policies and priorities of goals at the national and intervention levels.It is very important that what is the gender policy, what is the priority with regard to different sexes is made very clear.The agenda is set at the national level and at also at the international levels.For example, with respect to nutrition, it is often considered to be the prerogative of women as to whether their children are well fed and schooled or not.And therefore, you would see that I have taken numerous examples of complementary feeding practices all throughout this course.And you would see that the focus mostly is on women.If women are better educated, children are better nourished and so on.So, this is the link that is established, which means that women’s role or prerogative with regard to their existence in the care economy is again reinforced by the fact that children will be well-nourished only if women are well educated.Now this is a stereotypical assumption that is made with respect to women.But at the policy level that means the agenda is fixed at the focus on women or the priority with regard to the goal of better nutrition among children also means that girl children should go to school so that they can be better mothers.Now irrespective of whether we agree with this notion or not, but this is how the national agenda is fixed.Secondly, gender mainstreaming strategies and gender analysis methods.Reasonable level of gender analysis specific to an intervention, one or more clear goals relating to changes in gender equality, some means of monitoring and reporting on the changes in gender equality with identifiable link to intervention, dialogue between a development agency and its partners, civil society organizations, etc.Some of the other elements here are resources and capacity.That is again, very important.So human resources, gender equality, training, gender analysis tools.So, with respect to human resources, they may be internal or external to an organization making optimal use of national, local gender expertise.So, when I am referring to gender expertise here or human resources internal or external to an organization, when designing policy interventions with respect to let us say nutrition,while on the one hand the framework is very important.What is the framework that we are following at the national level so as to meet the outcomes of nutrition among children, nutrition among mothers or women and so on.Whether we are looking at women only as mothers or whether we are looking at women also as individuals also sets the context of the nutrition policy.Now if the focus is entirely on ensuring that children are well fed, children are well-nourished because children are the ultimate resources for the economy in future and we are a growing economy and therefore we must have well fed and healthy children.Now if the focus is only on this and also, we have already established this link and assume that if women are better educated, there would be better outcomes for children then essentially what we are trying to see here is the role of women only as mothers,as better mothers.So that their education then becomes the instrument through which children become better nourished.So, in this sense then gender expertise also matters a lot with regard to where they wantthe weight to be on and this is the importance of human resources in this context.Gender equality training for own and partner agency staff, general issues on gender, includingnew topics such as masculinities and femininities.Gender analysis tools, for example, we may have gendered analytical frameworks, checklists,handbooks, etc.Stakeholder analysis and identification of actors, example, who are the beneficiaries,who will be the partner agencies, coordination offices, consultants.So similarly, with the same example of nutrition outcomes with regard to children when we aredesigning an intervention and we are trying to execute an intervention, it is very importantwith regard to identification of who will be the beneficiaries, who will be the partneringagencies through which this intervention will take place, where will be the coordinationoffices and so on and so forth.Institutional arrangements, mechanisms for promoting gender equality from the nationalto the local program, example, gender units, gender focal points, etc.And lastly, sex dis-aggregated data and information is paramount to assess in change in genderequality, which is why in various national level reports within India itself, you wouldsee that much of the data is dis-aggregated by sex, by male, female and also by children.That helps us to assess the change in gender equality that has taken place, however, muchremains to be done in this area.Now let us have a look at some of the gender analytical frameworks that exist.This has been summed up in this table under three heads.The framework, what is the focus of the framework, and what are the tools that are used to addressthe focus of these frameworks.These are just a few examples.I am sure there are a number of more frameworks that have been added to such analysis withtime and that the students may also consider.So, let us begin with the Harvard analytical framework.Now this is a framework where the focus is on resource allocations for women and men.And it is done with the help of certain tools.For example, the activity profile.So, the activity profile of women and men are jotted down and then access and control profile to resource and benefits for women and men and what are the influencing factors.These are jotted down.And then an analysis is done with respect to resource allocations for women and men.Another framework is people-oriented planning.Now this is basically an adaptation of the Harvard analytical framework for use in refugee situations.And the tools are refugee population profile and context analysis, activities analysis,which is more or less similar tool that is used in the Harvard analytical framework.Use of resources analysis and adaptation of Harvard tool 2, which is access and control profile, women’s socio-political profile compared to men’s and so on.You also have a Moser framework where the focus is on three concepts, women’s triple role, which is the reproductive or what I am referring to a social reproduction or the care economy, the productive and the community work.So, women when they are involved in the care economy referred to a social reproduction.Women when they are involved in production or the productive economy, let us say in agricultural commodities or in small scale industry and so on.And women involved in community management or community work.So, this is what we are referring to as a women’s triple role.And what are the tools that help us analyze these concepts?Gender roles, identification, the triple role, gender needs assessment, dis-aggregating control of resources and decision making.We also have gender analysis matrix where the focus is on determining the different impact development interventions have on women and men.So here the analysis of four levels of society, which means that we are carrying out the analysis of interventions on the impact that the interventions have on women, men, household and the community.Analysis of four kinds of impact- through labour, time, resources, socio-cultural factors.We also have capacities and vulnerabilities analysis framework.Here the focuses to help in planning aid in emergencies and to meet immediate needs andthe tools are categories of capabilities and vulnerabilities, additional dimensions of complex reality.Similarly, the women’s empowerment framework.Here the focus is on analysing equality by sectors, but concentrates on separate areas of social life.So, measuring levels of equality, women’s empowerment.Social relations approach- here the focus is on analysis existing gender inequality in distribution of resources, responsibilities and power.And the tools used are frameworks for conceptualizing, studying and implementing empowerment, Sen-inspired framework, ability to exercise choice, resources, agency and achievements.Again, I have tried to summarize most of these gender analytical frameworks into just one table, which is a very complex exercise and it would be in the interest of the students to pick up on each one of these frameworks and look into the details of how the tools are used.I have provided references at the end of this lesson which can be used by the students to look up each of these frameworks and see which of these frameworks are most suitable for your area of research.As I keep saying that the context setting is very important.If you go back to the previous classes, you would see that the world views are very important.So, considering the world view that you are coming from and the context that you are working in, setting up your agenda of your research becomes very important in deciding which framework you would like to choose.Just to give you an example of the nutrition story that I have been talking about.From these frameworks that I might want to use the gender analysis matrix because I want to look at the impact of labour, time, resources and socio-cultural factors that contribute to the nutrition of children or the growth and monitoring of children.Similarly, I might also want to look up activity profile of the men and women in my study area that contributes to nutrition among children or malnourishment among children.And I might also want to look up the social relations approach.So, depending upon the story that you want to come up with when you are following your development research question, you might want to combine many of these analytical frameworks also.However, caution must be exercised with regard to how these mixing of analytical frameworks take place because often the agenda behind these conceptual frameworks also are very different.And we may not want to combine frameworks which have contesting and contrasting agendas.It is also true that there are various stereotypical assumptions about women’s position in society and in the household.And this is largely prevalent in the area of development, cooperation and internationaldevelopment.And often when we are carrying out a gender analysis, it becomes very important to challenge these gender stereotypes.Now let us have a look at some of the gender stereotypes that are widely prevalent among the gender analysts or also among the international agencies, international development cooperation practitioners and so on and so forth.And what are the methodological challenges that we face because of these assumptions,because of the stereotypical assumptions there.So, this slide here shows you the challenging stereotype assumptions made by planners about the household.Often when we talk about the household with respect to the structure of low-income households,the assumption that is made is or it is a nuclear household.You have a male head of the household, a female head of the household and the children.Therefore, most households always also have this question that who is the head of the household?While the assumption often in the case of third world countries is also made that the head of the household has to be a male head of the household.But it need not necessarily be so.But these days many surveys have started disaggregating this information by asking male head of the household and female head of the household.But again, there are certain stereotypical assumptions here because we assume as a given that India has moved far ahead over the period of last three, four decades and therefore all families in this country are nuclear but it need not be so.So, one of the first assumptions with respect to the household particularly in the context of structure of low-income households is the nuclearity of the assumptions.And the empirical and methodological challenges that we face is high proportion of other household structures exist.For example, extended families, women headed households and so on.So the question that arises is that when we are speaking with respect to policy interventions for welfare interventions trying to reach certain goals, we have goal oriented objectives with regard to nutrition outcomes, let us say or health outcomes or education outcomes and we have started with the assumption of a nuclear family, then how are we dealing with the problems or how are we addressing the problems of other kinds of families, which may also have a very high proportion of existence.So, second is with regard to the organization of tasks in the household.The assumption usually is that man is the breadwinner and the woman is a housewife.Whereas you would see that women and men are involved in different roles depending on the gender division of labour in the context.And women particularly have multiple roles because of the reproductive, productive, community managing and community politics rules.Therefore, the very stereotypical and traditional notion of man as a breadwinner and women as housewife, when we start with this assumption and then when we collect the data and enter into our analysis, we face roadblocks.Because we would see that there are multiple roles that both men and women play in their daily lives and therefore that needs to be contextualized in the case of the research question that you are following.Similarly, the issue of control of resources and decision making in the household.Now often the assumption is that there is equal access to resources, there is a harmonious gender relation in the household and the household is therefore treated as a unit.Most socio-economic surveys in the developing countries context you would see, also in the context of the developed countries you would see, household is taken as a unit of observation.Most national level survey agencies including the national sample survey organization and so on also collect data at the household level.And why would one collect data at the household level because the assumption here is that the resources are all equally distributed across all members of the household.But if that is so then why is it that the so-called dependent members of the household,most particularly women and children always get an unfair deal vis-a-vis the male members of the households.So, the challenges that we face are- often there is unequal access to resources for different household members.Gender relations are often conflicting and therefore there is a need for dis-aggregationof the household.One needs to look at men, women and children separately.One needs to differentiate individuals within the household by age, by marital status.We may have extended members of the family staying within a family.And therefore, desegregation within the household also becomes an important factor in trying to explain the question that we are following.Okay, now let us move on to looking up some gender sensitive indicators with respect to poverty and power.Again, here I will not enter into the details of these indicators.I will only flag off or mention the names of some of these indicators and let me alsoinform that the details regarding these indicators are all available in public forums these days.They are very easily accessible and students who are interested in looking up into thedetails of each of these indicators can very well look into by going through the referencesthat I have mentioned at the end of this course.So, dis-aggregating core human development indicators by sex and composing various genderrelated indices.I have just mentioned that sex dis-aggregated data or gender dis-aggregated data becomesvery important because there are challenges, empirical and methodological challenges tothese assumptions that we stick on to.So, in this context various gender related indices have already come up.