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Module 1: Safe and Sustainable Transportation Systems

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Urban Transportation and Emission Factors

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We are going to introduce you to, uh, The urban transport and, uh, uh, emissions issues, uh, as well as urban transport and, uh, noise issues. So you have to, uh, if you're working in the arena of urban transport, it is very important. Uh, and nowadays you are that you understand how, uh, transportation impacts the energy needs, the environment. Uh, what kinds of pollutants are coming out of, uh, uh, the vehicles and how do you essentially estimate or measure those emissions? Uh, if you begin, uh, if we begin to look at a road transport and its contributions to air pollution, uh, this is a very serious, uh, uh, matter in most of the countries around the world. Uh, and these emissions lead have a very, uh, high, uh, Uh, impact on human health, right? So the latest research, uh, where a lot of transportation professionals are now, uh, collaborating with, uh, uh, actual medical doctors in order to, uh, understand, uh, what are the, uh, externalities of all the transportation, uh, that is, uh, uh, taking place in our urban streets. Uh, and one of those, uh, externalities are, uh, its impact on, uh, Uh, on human health, uh, it, it has been estimated, uh, that, uh, the economic cost of air pollution is about 2% of the GDP in many of the countries. Right. So it not only, so when, when, uh, pollution impacts human health, uh, the productivity of, uh, uh, all of us goes down, uh, we have to take a lot of medical leave, sick leave. So if you accumulate all of those. Uh, in any of the, at a national level, you would see that it has a very significant impact, uh, on, uh, on the GDP as well. So not only does it impact your health, it impacts the GDP. Uh, so overall, uh, air pollution and in, uh, in, in, uh, not only air pollution, but in particular, uh, the emissions that comes out of, uh, vehicles. Uh, is, is, um, a major cause of concern in many of the developed as well as developing economies around the world. Uh, so in order to, uh, understand better in a better manner, uh, how, uh, which are the most polluting transport modes, uh, uh, which are the most. Uh, environmental hotspots in your cities, there are different things that needs to be done. The first of it is to identify the main transport generated pollutants. What are the gases that are emitted from the vehicles? Uh, then you need to understand the different, uh, management controls of fuel, right? There are different new fuel technologies that are coming out. How do we implement these field technologies? And also for example, a newer vehicle technologies that have. A cleaner that can comply with cleaner emissions standards, uh, maybe electric vehicles, uh, so on and so forth. So there are different strategies that need to be put in place in order to, uh, fight this externality of, uh, emissions and transport. Uh, if you start looking at a global scenario, uh, you would see that, uh, India, uh, the, uh, the rate of increase. Uh, of transport related emissions is the highest in India. When you look at, uh, the non OACD countries. So that is a cause of concern for us, uh, in India as well, because more and more people are now buying, uh, automobiles. Uh, some of our, uh, uh, commercial vehicles are also very old. Uh, so they may not be compliant with the, uh, current standards. Um, our driving distances are increasing. So all of this. Put together, uh, is, uh, uh, is contributing to the, uh, poor air quality in our, uh, in our cities. And, uh, if you have, uh, uh, been listening to a recent news, uh, you would always, uh, uh, remember the condition, uh, that used to happen in our, uh, national Capitol noodley during the winter seasons where the air quality has to drop significantly. And one of the major contributors to the drop in air quality. Was the, uh, emissions coming out of the motor vehicles. Uh, so you would see that, uh, among the motor vehicles themselves, uh, there are, uh, different types of emissions that happen from, uh, air transport, light duty vehicles, buses to wheelers. Uh, three wheelers and also avail. So, uh, for all of our cars, uh, essentially fall in the, uh, in the light duty vehicles. Uh, so if we do nothing, uh, what is projected by 2040 is that, uh, uh, there's going to be a steep increase in the, uh, emissions in the quantum of emissions, uh, that is being consumed by the passenger modes. Uh, especially if you take into consideration the light duty vehicles, uh, whereas, uh, if you just look at two or three wheelers, the impact is not much buses. The impact is not very high. So we have to be very careful when, uh, when we see, uh, when we, uh, see these figures of, uh, uh, how much, uh, quantum of energy is being consumed at how much emissions are being, uh, uh, emitted into the atmosphere from all the car. Uh, car centric, cities that we have in our country and the world currently. So as we said, uh, along with emissions, so what, what, what this personalized motorized transport, so personalized, motorized transport means any cars or any tubulars that we own. It not only, uh, uh, has an externality on emissions, but it also increases the energy consumption. So, uh, we need a lot of fuel to power these vehicles and all the gasoline fuel. Uh, all the gasoline that comes, uh, to the pumps, uh, they emit, uh, uh, emissions during the entire process of their, um, uh, movement from the mines, from the coal mines to, uh, the refineries and so on and so forth. So there's a lot of emissions, uh, that, uh, is emitted, uh, during the generation of that energy. And also subsequently when we use it more, when we use the fuel more and more in our vehicles, they also admit. A lot of energy and it also is increasing our dependency on fossil fuel. We have not yet, uh, gone to a considerably, gone to a cleaner fuel technology. Neither have we considerably moved towards renewable energy sources. So we are still very dependent on fossil fuels and emissions is a big concern, uh, in, in that sector. Uh, so when we look at, uh, uh, vehicular emissions, uh, are the major, uh, the major pollutants are your particulate matter. Uh, PM 10:00 PM, 2.5, uh, noxious gases, uh, NOx, and also carbon monoxide. Uh, the other, uh, other externality in case of, uh, uh, in case of, uh, transport, uh, uh, transport in case of the transport fields is a traffic noise. Uh, that is an externality, which we really don't pay a lot of attention to, but we will tell you in this lecture, probably the last final lecture that how, uh, uh, how traffic knives. Uh, also has a severe impact on our health and our hearing. And it may, uh, it should be also taken into consideration when any new transportation project has been built. Uh, you already mentioned, uh, what are the major pollutants, but if you look at what, uh, those pollutants, how they can harm your health, then, uh, the situation looks would, uh, look even more alarming, for example, uh, if you have, uh, if you are exposed to. A lot of carbon monoxide, uh, people with chronic heart disease may experience chest pains, uh, impaired. It may impair your vision, uh, dexterity and learning ability as well. So there are a lot of these studies that are happening now that are actually related. Uh, uh, the dosage or the, uh, or how much you inhale, uh, these, uh, gases and what kind of impact is it having on your health? Right. So, uh, uh, when people are usually told to not be outdoors, uh, that usually is. Uh, uh, it's pointing to the fact that, uh, there may be a high dosage that, uh, he or she may inhale because of the, uh, emissions coming out of the vehicles outdoors. And that may cause damage to your, uh, uh, internal organs or to your health overall. Great. Uh, similarly, you can look at what noxious gases does, what carbon dioxide does. Uh, the emissions of sulfur dioxide from regular sources has been controlled to a large extent. Uh, so has been, uh, uh, the emissions of lead. Uh, so these two, uh, I may say, although they have, uh, they have some impact on your health, but if we are strictly talking about, uh, emissions from transportation sources, then these two have been taken care of, uh, to a larger extent. Uh, now, uh CPCV, which is our central pollution control board, uh, brings out, uh, certain numbers or certain statistics, uh, which points towards transport sector, being the major culprit when it comes to emissions. Uh, of all of, all of, all of these gases. Uh, so you would see even when compared to any large industry or definitely from the domestic and other sectors, you would see transport has a higher share of emissions. Uh, sulfur dioxide, as I just mentioned, has been largely taken, uh, taken into control and particulate matter or low, although I may not be directly coming out of, uh, uh, vehicles, but, uh, due to the presence of road dust. Uh, on either side of the pavement or on the pavement itself. So when the vehicles move at a, uh, high speed on, on the pavements, those dust particles are again, uh, uh, uh, uh, emitted into, or they're picked up into the atmosphere and then they get circulated, uh, in the air. And, uh, people may inhale those as well. So in, in an indirect fashion, particulate matter, uh, is something that, uh, uh, uh, uh, researchers in. Uh, urban transport are concerned with, but, uh, it is usually the industries that Emmet directly a lot of particularly. So when we look at, uh, the parameters that determined vehicular emission at a broad level, you would see that people will talk about people. Usually talk about a vehicular technology, fuel quality inspection and maintenance of the vehicles that are currently in use. And also several rodent traffic management strategies. Right? So vehicle technology, we have, uh, we all know, uh, um, catalytic converters were the ones that, uh, completely changed, uh, how, uh, uh, worldly, uh, or what the quantum of, uh, poor, uh, poor emissions that used to happen in the early 1980s, uh, in India. Uh, we're currently. But, uh, we're completely taken out of the equation by the, um, uh, catalytic converters that came in the early nineties. Uh, so I'm very, technology has been improving ever since. Uh, now we are adopting more and more, uh, uh, technologies that can, uh, uh, comply with the. Uh, uh, Euro standards, for example, all our parts say at state for, uh, Barrett state six standards are comparable to international standards. So all of our vehicle technology has improved a whole lot. Uh, so we have been able to control, uh, the emissions of these gases, uh, from the vehicles, uh, fuel quality as well. We have reduced, uh, unleaded fuel, uh, is now, uh, the norm, which was not the case about 20, 25 years ago. We used to have a lot of. Uh, high content of lead in our fuel. Uh, also alternative fuels like CNG, uh, is being used in many cities in our, uh, in our country. So that is helping, uh, in reducing the amount of pollutants that is coming out of our vehicles. Uh, uh, the third point, which is, uh, stressed often, uh, and we, many of us are guilty of not. Are taking care of this is, uh, to properly maintain and inspect, uh, our vehicles for, uh, pollutants. Right? So this is a very, very important measure that has to be taken very seriously. And, uh, as, as because, uh, the norms that are stated, uh, for, uh, emissions from, uh, vehicles are usually, uh, met when the vehicles come out of the dealership. So the minute the vehicle starts running, it starts deteriorating. There is a lot of. Friction in the body, in the parts of the engine. And so the emission, uh, usually starts increasing. So you have to keep it lubricated. Well, oils have to be changed. Uh, regular intervals tire pressures have to be maintained, uh, and more, uh, specifically speeds that you drive on the roads have to be also taken care of. So all of this has to be done periodically. Uh, periodic maintenance is very, very. Necessarily, uh, and strict, uh, it has to be enforced very strictly as well. And finally, rodent traffic management also plays a very important role. You will see that, uh, emissions are highest, uh, around signalized intersections. Uh, usually vehicles are idling. Uh, and then when they, uh, uh, start after the accident, uh, that is when a lot of, uh, pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere. Uh, so you would, uh, when, when, uh, traffic engineers usually, uh, uh, design, uh, the roads, they make sure that a signalized intersection is the last option. Uh, for a junction, uh, because, uh, the, one of the reasons for that being, uh, pollutants is very high yet. Signalized intersections. Uh, they would rather, uh, have rotaries first, uh, our traffic circles first in order because they, uh, allow vehicles to what lower speeds and the acceleration and diesel addition is not that high. And hence the pollutants are not emitted in a large quantity. So all of these four factors play a very, very important role when it comes to, uh, the emissions, uh, coming out of our vehicles. Uh, given here on some, uh, part stage, uh, norms that, uh, uh, like will help you understand how, uh, we have improved over the years. Uh, so the first, uh, norms, uh, came into place, uh, in, uh, in, in the turn of the century in 2000. And ever since now, we are, uh, moving towards part stage six, uh, which will be implemented first in the national Capitol, in the NCR region next. And, uh, hopefully by the next. Uh, two to four years, uh, we will get it, uh, nationwide in all of the cities, uh, uh, vehicles that are compliant by ballot stayed six. Uh, what are the compliance means is that there are some standards that all of these vehicles have to meet. For example, uh, if you just take, uh, the latest one that we are going to go into. So if, uh, any vehicle that is compliant with Palisade six can only Emmet one gram per kilometer of carbon monoxide. Uh, while it travels, right? So there are strict standards, uh, that are in place. Uh, so that's what I was also mentioning in the previous slide that these are standards for vehicles that are coming out of the dealership. So once you have driven it more and more, maybe, uh, the carbon monoxide emissions is, would increase. And hence you have to always. Maintain your vehicle and do periodic inspections so that they're within limits. So this chart shows you different standards for different gases, uh, and for, uh, gasoline vehicles, as well as diesel vehicles. It gives you an idea of, uh, how you should maintain your vehicles. Uh, this is an interesting chart, uh, which tells you that we have come a long way, uh, in controlling the pollutants, uh, from the early, uh, from the early nineties. To where we are today, because you will see that that has been almost a 94 90. If you look at that have been almost 96.5% reduction, uh, of, uh, pollutants, uh, uh, of pollutants from cars and like, uh, light duty diesel. Uh, similarly there has been a drastic reduction. Uh, in other categories as well. Uh, however, the cause of concern currently is even though each vehicle is emitting much lesser, uh, than in the early 1990s, but the number of vehicles have also a reason to an alarming level. So in 1990s to 2020, now we are, the number of vehicles have risen. So each vehicle, although emitting less. But now when we add up now the quantum of vehicles, uh, the emissions are a significant number. Uh, usually if you are to calculate, uh, at a very macro level, uh, at a very, uh, uh, corridor level emissions, uh, so an entire street, how much, uh, what type of emissions is coming out, but entire street levels of these are not microscopic. These are not at one way color. How, how much does one particular vehicle limit, but maybe a stream of vehicles on a particular road. A road segment in your city, how much we, how much emissions are coming out of that, if you were to ask, uh, if you were to calculate that at a macro level, uh, what you would have to know is, uh, what are the number of vehicles per category? So different categories of vehicles amid different, uh, amount of pollutants, uh, the distance traveled by each of those category vehicles, right? It depends upon how much they have traveled. And then you multiply that with a factor called the emission factors. Uh, which we will tell you how to, uh, uh, measure there are some standards, uh, for Indian conditions as well. So you multiply those emission factors with the, uh, with the number of vehicles of particular category and the distance that they travel and in summit over all the, uh, different types of vehicles to get a understanding, right? So, uh, maybe there will be a situation in the future where we will have. Uh, maps, just like how we have Google maps. Now, maybe we'll have maps, which will show that this corridor is a emission hotspot in the morning, peak hour. Whereas the other corridor, uh, is relatively, uh, Uh, better. Uh, well, uh, as far as air quality is concerned or regular emissions is concerned. So maybe, uh, you could make a choice just as you make a choice currently based on, uh, congestion on different corridors. Maybe this is something in the future that you will be able to do. So, so the, when we talk about vehicle emission factors, uh, various experiments have been conducted, uh, at different road segments with using different types of vehicles. Right. Uh, and it has been, uh, um, uh, models have been developed. Statistical models have been developed to show how, uh, the emissions vary, uh, based on speed. So speed essentially, uh, is, is, uh, is a proxy to understand, uh, how much, uh, your vehicles are emitting. Uh, people have also gone at a microscopic level to understand the acceleration. Which gives you even more, uh, detailed understanding of, uh, how each of the vehicles Emmett, uh, made, uh, the pollutants. But if you have to be at a macro level, uh, speed is a good enough, uh, No proxy to understand. Uh, so you will see that, uh, uh, there is a lot of, uh, uh, the emissions are higher at lower speeds. And as you pick up the speed, uh, the emissions go down, but it is not, uh, it is not always a negative curve. If you go up beyond a certain point, Uh, speed again, the emissions picks up. So this is the case of carbon monoxide, uh, similarly, the case of Knox. So that is why, when you are instructed to drive, uh, somewhere around, uh, 50 or 55 or 60 kilometers per hour, and this is one of the factors because, uh, at that speed. Uh, you are emissions coming out of your vehicles are also the minimum, right? So that is something that you have to keep in mind. So when you, if you have to now know what are the emission factors of a carbon monarchs, how much carbon monoxide is, uh, your car, which is the light Brown, uh, is emitting, uh, at 40 kilometers per hour. Uh, so you would just go here, take the curve and you would know the factor of the number, the number of grams per kilometer. Uh, that it would emit. So that is the factor that you would multiply it, uh, in the previous equation. And you would be able to, uh, know the, uh, emissions at a macro level at a corridor level. There are similar charts for NOx and particulate matter and so on, so forth. So for example, if you were asked to calculate the total carbon monoxide emissions generated on a 40 kilometer road from a mixed traffic consisting of 10 trucks, 16 cars, and. 22 wheelers, uh, using this formula, all you have to do is, you know, the total, uh, length of the segment, you know, the proportion of the vehicles, uh, then you multiply each and then, you know, uh, how much of, uh, emissions is coming out for a truck? What is the emission factor for a track based on, uh, by that stage four? What are the emissions coming out of? Uh, carbon monoxide, emissions, carbon monoxide coming out of a car from cars and similarly for two wheelers, then you multiply all that and you would get you're using these emission factors to multiply it with, uh, uh, for example, uh, there are 10 trucks, uh, for a 40 kilometer stretch and four grams per kilometer. So for dives 40 kilometers, then you would get a grasp level that there would be a almost 5,000 grams of carbon monoxide. It will be emitted in that stretch based on the vehicle mix that is available. So that is a very simple calculation, uh, that will allow you to at least have an idea of how well, uh, how poor the quality or the vehicle emissions is on your road. Uh, now then you can make use of different kinds of models that are available, different kinds of softwares that are available, uh, that allows you to, uh, model these, uh, emissions in real time. Uh, and it can then, uh, you can use these models to predict, uh, what would happen in the future. For example, if the number of vehicles improve, uh, increase in the next year, what would happen to the corridor, uh, level of what had happened to the corridor level emissions? Uh, regular emissions, uh, moves is something that is a very popular, uh, as developed by EPA in the United States. Uh, you can use these models, uh, uh, to, uh, uh, get an estimate of the emissions from mobile sources under wide range of user defined conditions. Right? So you can define the population of users that are using the vehicles. Because it depends upon, uh, if there are all, uh, the users on the roads are, uh, are commuters who, uh, who are on that road every day, they would drive in a different manner. Whereas if they're tourists or visitors, then that corridor would have a different pattern of movement. Right. Uh, they will be stopping and starting to see multiple sites. So maybe the emissions will be higher, whereas commuters want to, uh, just go, uh, quickly, uh, maybe the emissions, if they are following the speeds. Uh, would be lower. Well, the next concept in, uh, in vehicular emissions is the, uh, concept of exposure. So now, uh, what researchers and everybody is looking at is not only measuring or calculate or estimating, uh, how much, uh, of these pollutants are being, uh, emitted by the vehicles, uh, by the different types of vehicles. But as a result of those emissions, what is happening to human health? Right? Like I said, in the opening slides, it has a very poor impact on human health. So, uh, people are now, our researchers are now, or studies are now moving towards, uh, taking the information about emissions and then calculating what is called exposure. Uh, it depends upon not only the concentration, but also the duration during which a person is. In contact with this kind of environment, right? So if you are exposed every day, uh, to a very volatile environment of high emissions, then, uh, the impact on you will be different. Whereas, uh, a person is only exposed once in a week, then the impact on his or her health would be different. So we are moving from now moving a step ahead, um, uh, from just measuring or estimating emissions. To actually estimating their impact on health, by understanding how much is the exposure and by understanding exposure, you would also be understanding how much of dosage that you are going to inhale. So you would see, uh, we quickly see how, uh, you could measure that. See the exposures, when we say exposure, it is defined as the concentration or the amount of a particular agent. That reaches a target organism system or population in a specific frequency or a defined duration. Right. So how frequently and for how long are you exposed, uh, to, uh, a situation where the, uh, emissions coming out of vehicles, since we're talking about vehicles, it's going to be done for any other type of emissions as well. But since we're talking about vehicles, uh, if you are say, for example, your houses. Right next to a very busy street. So, uh, and you have a window that opens into your living room. So how much of that air are you exposed to? Uh, what's this, if your houses on a very residential street and the street alongside is not very busy, so that is called exposure. The other type of expertise is obviously when you're walking on the street or where you are using a two Wheeler. Uh, or, or not Orisha, uh, where you're actually exposed to the environment, uh, versus your car when you are, uh, you can roll up your windows and turn up the AC, but that is a different type of exposure then. Uh, so exposures can be instantaneous exposures, uh, at any instant in time and is expressed in the same unit as the concentration of pollutants. So it's just a grandpa, uh, kilometer or gram per minute of how much you are exposed to a particular type. A pollutant, whereas time integrated exposure is the integral of instantaneous exposures over the duration exposure. So you are exposed, uh, for 10 minutes here during the day 20 minutes there, uh, five minutes there. So if you add all of those up for different types of emissions, that gives you. And a time integrated exposure, whereas you can then average that, uh, time integrated, uh, exposure by dividing it by the duration of the exposure to give you their time average export it. So what happens is you have zones. Uh, where, uh, spatially, there is a big variation in your city, uh, as, as far as vehicle emissions are concerned, right? Uh, and not only spatially, especially meaning your CBD area or your central business district area, uh, might be, it might have higher emissions. Whereas your purely residential areas may have lower emissions. So that is a special difference. Whereas there may be temporal difference also like, uh, during, uh, the office peak hours the morning and the evening, uh, you may have higher emissions because a lot of vehicles are on the road and a lot of people are moving. Whereas during off-peak hours in the afternoon, the late night, you may have lower emissions. Uh, but then, uh, the environment also, the temperature also plays a role. So there is multiple factors that, uh, get into play when we are actually talking about, uh, the exposure to, uh, these pollutants. Uh, this is just a, uh, another, a slide that tells you, uh, that are direct and indirect ways of measuring, uh, the exposure. Uh, and what we are looking at, especially is. Uh, personal exposure assessment based on individual's trajectory and variable air quality. Right. Because as, as a person moving in a transportation mode, a person is hardly stationary, right? So we want to track how a person's movement along the urban street, uh, street network is effecting his or her exposure to the emissions coming out of the vehicles. So we have to be, uh, not only, uh, uh, uh, look at it, trajectory of the people moving, but also the variable air quality in the different areas that the person is. Moving. So that is our primary interest. It can be done, uh, directly by, uh, using a personalized, uh, air quality monitor. And then, uh, having GPS data on individuals movements that will tell us that spatially, he or she was here for five minutes. Uh, then he or she moved. To another location. So you have the GPS location and you have with your, uh, in your hand, uh, uh, air quality monitor that can then, uh, show, uh, the, your trajectory, uh, as you're moving from point a to point B to point C to point D. Uh, so because, I mean, this is an example of, uh, what is happening, uh, in some of the developed countries. Now, the situation. Has become so alarming that London, for example, has created what are called. These are low emission zones, or they are also trying to move towards ultra low emission zones. They have already moved towards some zones, uh, called us ultra low emission zone. So what they usually do is, uh, they will charge, uh, vehicles that do not meet, uh, the Euro six or Euro four standard. For example, if your vehicle does not. Um, Matt Euro four Euro six standards, and you are entering a particular zone that is a hotspot of four, uh, uh, vehicular emissions, meaning that, uh, it's a very concentrated location and a lot of, uh, people are coming in there with their vehicles. So if there are vehicles that are not meeting the standards, then you may, you may be liable to be. Uh, charged a penalty or a fees, uh, very steep fees, which will then, uh, either due to one or two things, discourage you from traveling into, uh, the, uh, the zone or the area, or be encouraged you to improve the maintenance of your vehicle and maybe make them compliant to the standards. So both in both cases, whichever way, whichever, uh, path you decide to. It is a win-win situation for everybody. So this is something that, uh, London has already gone towards. Um, many other developed cities, especially, uh, cities in developed countries are actually looking towards these things. Uh, so as to reduce the amount of vehicular emissions in certain hotspot areas that are there. So this is, uh, a practical application of, uh, implementing what you call, uh, uh, emission based pricing or emission charging.