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Module 1: Multimodal Transportation Systems

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Park and Ride Facility Planning

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So in this last lecture, in this series, uh, we will be now looking at one specific multimodal facility, which is the park and ride, uh, uh, park and ride facility, where we are going to, uh, expose you to, or, uh, uh, give you the idea about what is the planning process that goes into, uh, establishing a park and ride. Uh, why are, why is parking right and, uh, unnecessary. Uh, station, uh, are an unnecessary element in an, uh, multimodal urban transportation system. Uh, and, uh, give you a mathematical formulation or a mathematical, uh, way to determine where to locate your park and right station. Uh, so there are different types of parking rights. We gave you a little bit of an example in the, in the previous lecture. Uh, park and ride, uh, could be a local park and ride that is serving as a collector, for example, uh, transit, terminals, uh, bus Metro, et cetera. So we, we told you that, uh, even a Metro station, uh, can be considered as a park and ride station because you can park your vehicle at that Metro station and then ride the Metro, right. Uh, or drive the BRT. So even if you come by bicycle, you can park your bicycle there. If you come buy a two Wheeler, you can park here to be there. So that's a basic type of a park and ride facility or a park and ride, uh, station, uh, park and ride station. Yes. Uh, then it could be a remote, uh, park and ride facility, which is intercepting automobile trips, uh, near origin. With express bus rail service to the CBD and the activity centers. So what happens is, uh, maybe you have a suburban area, uh, and there is a lot of demand for, uh, people going to, uh, the central business district in the morning because majority of them maybe work in that central business district from this suburban area. Uh, however, the suburban area is a little bit large. And you cannot have, uh, uh, you cannot have, uh, your, um, um, your express bus or rail service go into all parts of that suburban area. Right? So if you have such a situation, what you allow is that you, uh, you allow for all of these people in, from the suburban area to kind of collect themselves, uh, at a location that is closer to this, uh, express rail or express bus. Uh, all of them come drive there, uh, to that place or get dropped off at that, uh, location at that remote location. And from there, their take on the, uh, Xpress bus or the Xpress rail. So that's kind of a remote, uh, concept or a remote park and ride facility. And we'll show you some, uh, pictorially how they are different. And then there is a peripheral, uh, kind of a park and ride facility that's on the edge of the CBD or activity centers. Usually within a 2.5, that's a 2.5 kilometer of the destination. That's more of a number. So what happens here is, uh, uh, you have, uh, park and right facilities at the edge of the CBD itself. So maybe, uh, the CBD is such an area where, uh, uh, people have, are the authorities have. Uh, prohibited the use of a single, a single occupancy vehicles or private vehicles, right? So many of the, uh, CBD areas around the world, uh, because they are so heavily polluted, uh, some of the strategies are to avoid, uh, single occupancy vehicles to entering from entering into the CBD, uh, and encourage the use of only sustainable modes within the CBD. That includes. Uh, public transportation, bicycling and walking. So what they do is in the periphery of the CBD, they'll allow people to drive till the periphery have a lot of parking lots there. So they, uh, park their vehicles there and then they ride either a bicycle sharing system or a, uh, or a Metro or, uh, or a local public transit or whatever it is. So these kinds of parking lot stations are at the periphery of the. Uh, CBD area. So these basically, uh, are three large broad categories of, uh, park and ride, uh, facilities that we are talking about. So what are the advantages of park and rec facilities? Uh, the primary intent or advantage of the park and ride facility is to increase transit travel. So what happens is public transit, like, you know, usually runs on fixed routes. Right. They cannot come to your doorstep, right. Uh, so if they cannot come to your doorstep, so one of the disadvantages is if you are origin or your destination is away from this, uh, um, uh, fixed route, then usually what happens is people are discouraged from using the public transport system. This, they feel that well, just to access the public transport. Uh, station, I have to go two kilometers or I have to go three kilometers. Uh, whereas my, uh, total journey length in itself is, uh, maybe, uh, six kilometers or seven kilometers. So should I, uh, take a chance and, uh, go one third of my trip length. Uh, and then change a mode and then get to my destination, or should I just pick up my vehicle and go to my destination? So that is the choice thought process that goes along. Uh, when you're talking about, uh, accessing a public transportation system. So since it is on fixed routes are, uh, unfixed sometimes even, uh, fixed right of way, like such as rail. So in order to encourage or attract people to use using that these park and ride facilities, uh, uh, word, uh, first taught them. Thought of, so what, what they were considered was that okay. Uh, since we cannot come to you, so since the public transportation cannot come to you, what we can do is we can provide this kind of, uh, remote facilities or this kind of intermediary facilities, uh, where you come to that place. And from there onwards, We will provide you, uh, our services. So that was kind of the idea that we, by providing parking rights services almost, uh, they were giving you the, uh, um, uh, impression that public transport is coming closer to your house than, uh, where it was originally because of its fixed route. Right? So that is, uh, that is the thought process. That went into these, uh, designing or providing these park and rec facilities. Uh, they could reduce urban highway traffic condition. So if, if they, uh, if they increase, if they're likely to increase public transit, uh, more chair, they will reduce definitely the use of, um, private vehicles. And hence they would reduce traffic congestion. Uh, automobile parking lots are the modest reduction. They have been, uh, seem to have only modest reductions in local traffic, uh, because, uh, uh, if you, uh, like I was saying in the previous lecture, if you, uh, allow for, um, uh, parking of cars at, uh, such, uh, parking and locations, so people would then access these locations using their cars. Uh, rather than using any sustainable modes. So, uh, automobile park and rides have not, uh, been so successful in reducing, uh, local traffic, uh, however, bicycle park and ride lots, uh, have greater, uh, economic and environmental benefits. Uh, so public bicycle sharing system, uh, if it is available in your, uh, if it is available in your city or. Um, if you're looking, uh, to make it, uh, uh, to bring it to your city, then you should have such, uh, public bicycle sharing systems, share station, uh, space with your Metro or your larger BRTs whichever you have in your city. So that will definitely give you a lot of economic and environmental benefits. Okay. Uh, financial impacts. Uh, we looked, uh, we told you that shopping centers adjacent to park and ride facilities tend to benefit the additional shopping. Uh, that is why, uh, the entire Tod. Uh, was being looked after, uh, what is being still envisioned in India, uh, is to have some, uh, provide some, uh, financial benefits, uh, for designing such, uh, parking lots or parking lot, uh, transfer facilities. Because otherwise, if it's just an open lot where fecals are parked, then it's not the most efficient. Are economically viable means of, uh, space utilization, right? Uh, you have to utilize the space in multiple fashion, uh, in today's environment. Uh, you cannot have a single use, uh, for one type of facility that becomes, uh, unviable, uh, during the course of the time. Uh, so what, uh, what part can, right. Um, uh, plant, any process adopted or something called it, uh, systems, uh, planning process. So the systems planning process, there are, uh, there are two fold. One is the system level one is the site level. So you have to look at a park and ride facility from the point of view of the urban transport system as a whole, or, uh, all the, uh, and connect. Uh, all the parking lots, uh, appropriately. And then you have to have some site-specific planning for each of the park and ride lots as well. Uh, for example, uh, transit agencies must be able to provide services to each individual park and ride lot. If the lot is to serve as a transfer point between. Uh, vehicles and transit modes. Uh, so it, it cannot be that, uh, these park and ride lots are two of the parking lots are well-connected to the transit system. Whereas three are not well-connected then, uh, the system as a whole, uh, does not function very properly. Uh, parking lot facilities will fail in the purpose if plan without the participation and commitment to the local transportation. You have to definitely, uh, partner with your transit agency, because this is meant these facilities are meant to, uh, enhance the transit usage. Uh, so systems planning process is the chosen process. Uh, it, uh, planners and engineers during the system planning process is in large part, one of facilitator and information gathering. So you have to. Have lot of information, uh, that has to be exchanged between this transit agent, uh, this, uh, the transit operator and the operator of the park and ride lots, right? If you'd not have a lot of information that is exchanged, uh, then, uh, these things will start to fail, uh, because now, uh, if, uh, I, as a potential user of the transit system, do not know. For example, if this parking lot is full, right, there may be a scenario scenario in the morning when there is morning rush hour, a park and ride lot gets full. Now, if that information is not available to me prior, then I go to this park and ride lot and find that well, it is full and then I'm already in my car. So what that will, what that will encourage me to do is just take my car and drive to my destination and not make that trip on transit. So that is a loss of one transit trip. So similarly, if a hundred people lose. Uh, and have no information about the parking availability at that lot, then they will again start driving. So this is a very, very important, uh, aspect, uh, in the case of parking, parking ride, lots and park and ride facilities. That information has to be, uh, gathered and, uh, disseminated to, uh, the users of course, participation of agencies, communities, and concerned. Citizens must be primary. Uh, must be the primary decision makers. Uh, we have already looked at this, uh, several stakeholders have to be always, uh, consulted prior to, uh, planning or setting up any kind of, uh, system. Uh, so the primary activities. And this, and this is, uh, a list of all the activities. And you would see that public involvement is that in each of these steps. So all of these activities are pretty generic in nature, but they have to be followed, uh, meatless, uh, to, uh, so as to, uh, develop these park and ride at a system level, otherwise you would see that, uh, they are working good at individual level, but they are not working. Very well at a system level. Right? So you have to have first an inventory. Of course. Uh, then you have to, uh, have a demand analysis, right? You have to know how many people actually would. Uh, want to park at that station and take the Metro. If you do not know the demand, then you would not be able to, uh, provide for so many parking spaces. And then that situation would arise that we just spoke about where people would come and get no parking spot and then they would just have to, uh, drive away in their vehicles. Uh, obviously you have to have, uh, you have to set up some goals. So the goals could be that, uh, transit ridership. Would increase by 5%. Uh, if I have a good network of, uh, parking lots, right? That may be the goal because remember the intent of park and ride lots is to improve, uh, the increase, the ridership of public transport system. So if you work with a goal in mind that today, uh, that public transportation ridership in my city is. Uh, 10%, but 10% of the city's people use public transportation, which is very low and we want to increase that. So in order to increase that we want to now put in our park and ride lots. So now the goal of these park and ride lot system would be to increase the ridership by 2%, maybe. So if you have that goal in mind, then you can work towards achieving that goal. So there has to be always. Goals objectives that have to be set. Otherwise you are just working, uh, uh, aimlessly almost. So you are not have any goal or aim towards working. Uh, so set up your goals and objectives, uh, develop measures that will perform, uh, um, that will, uh, always measure. Uh, whether you are working towards your objective or goal or not, uh, these are very, very important, uh, and these, uh, uh, measures have to be monitored, uh, at a specific time specific time intervals, not only at the end of the year or when the are, when somebody higher up has asked for an answer only, then you kind of. Uh, cobbled together, uh, what has been happening, uh, it's always a good practice, uh, to have, uh, continuous monitoring using these measures of how your system is working, uh, uh, develop network plan and evaluate alternatives. Uh, maybe, uh, there has to be a plan B uh, if, uh, your, uh, your current, uh, network of, uh, Uh, parking lots are not working. What is the alternative? You have to maybe tweak the design of the park and ride lot. Uh, maybe you have to reduce the parking cost of that lot maybe, or to subsidize, uh, the ticket cost, uh, on, on the, uh, transit line for people who are using the park and ride lots. So there are many strategies that you can. Uh, you can develop, uh, in order to attract, um, more, uh, transit ridership, uh, and have at least one or two alternatives in place. Uh, environmental level, policy level, environmental, and, uh, community review of course, has to happen from time to time, whether, uh, sometimes, uh, people queuing up at these park and ride lots. Uh, to enter or leave, uh, may make that parking lot spot, uh, an environmental hotspot, right? Suddenly all these cold engines, uh, start up in the evening when people are returning from work. And, uh, now, uh, everybody wants to exit the parking lot, uh, and they have started up their engines. So that whole, uh, area becomes a environmental hotspot. And if there is a lot of residential buildings around it, Uh, people may object to it. So how do you plan environmentally for, uh, for such situations? Uh, you have to have review plans. You have to, uh, monitor, uh, monitored. It, uh, uh, often are periodically. Uh, in order to, um, uh, prepare maybe some mitigation plans and so on and so forth. Okay. And then have obviously, uh, documented, uh, your implementation plans. So these are genetic steps that needs to be followed, uh, in your, uh, in, uh, in developing a system level. Uh, park and ride facility. Then when we are talking about site level, uh, planning process, uh you're which site to pick, uh, for your parking lot facility, uh, becomes very, very, uh, important, uh, consideration, uh, because the site, like I said, uh, should not be, become an environment, uh, environmental hotspot, uh, such that it is a dis uh, such that it is inconveniencing the people who. Uh, live around it. Uh, the cost of the land becomes, uh, uh, an issue because suddenly now you have a parking, uh, structure or a parking lot in the middle of a big residential area, a bit commercial area, a water or whatever it may be, uh, that may, uh, play a role in picking, uh, which, uh, site at which site you would develop your parking lot. Uh, the connectivity to the transit line is of course, one criteria. Right. Uh, yeah, you have to have the site. Uh, well connected to the existing, uh, Metro or BRT line. Uh, it cannot be such that, uh, there is a 200 meter distance from your parking lot to the station. Then that extra 200 meter is something. Uh, which becomes an inconvenience for the person who is, uh, parking at this lot. And he, or she has to now walk, or if, then you have to provide shelters for walking, uh, maybe during the rain, it becomes a problem. So. When you're designing, when you're picking a site, there are multiple considerations that you have to take into consider, uh, that you have to, uh, uh, design for. And, uh, uh, what we will be going through today is, uh, letting you, uh, develop, uh, this site analysis or, uh, this, uh, site picking process, uh, if you may call it. So, um, we will develop, we'll show you a mathematical. A way in which you can pick from alternate sites that you have, uh, again, uh, if you want, uh, uh, if you want to have a checklist of, uh, all the, uh, processes, whether you have followed all the processes in the site planning process, uh, you would definitely, uh, start with, uh, well, you initiate the, uh, after you initiate the project, you do you develop a site level, need assessment and performance indicators again. You have to have a certain performance indicators, performance measures, just like we had it in system levels. You have to have it now. Site-specific level. Uh, alternative site, India identification always have alternatives against which you are, um, uh, ranking or rating this site, maybe for example. So do not always, uh, put your money on one site. Uh, you, you can put your money once you have money on the one side. Once you have decided from an existing pool of alternatives. You evaluate all these alternatives and then you come down to a detailed concept level of development and cost estimating for one site, which you have now thoroughly evaluated and said that this is the best possible site, uh, for my park and ride facility. After that comes your regular, um, uh, preliminary engineering and, uh, design and documentation and final design and construction. Okay. So this is a site level planning process, uh, which, uh, is it's pretty generic for any project that you want to take up. But in this case, uh, this is a parking facility and we will, uh, take you through this, uh, process in a mathematical concept and allow you to, um, uh, understand how to pick a site. For your park and ride facility. Again, you'll see that public involvement is at every step. So do not do not ever leave the public out from your planning process, because that will eventually come back to bite you. When, uh, these, these very public are the ones that will be using the system. And if you don't take them into confidence while building the system, uh, then they may not use it once you've built it. And then all the money that you have put in the planning, design and construction process, uh, goes to waste, uh, or you have to, uh, revisit your construction design and then you put in a lot of money to change it. And it becomes a very expensive process. Uh, so if you look at, uh, uh, those, uh, the entire ecosystem of, uh, uh, of a park and ride facility, uh, this is what I was talking about when the first slide, when. Uh, when I showed that there are maybe three different categories of, uh, park and ride lots. So maybe here at your residential generator, so here at your homes, from where you would want to go to your CBD, this is here and this is maybe the entire, uh, network, uh, road network that is available. So you could have your, a local, which is your neighborhood park and ride lots right here. Uh, where, what could happen is that, uh, all of you take your individual cars and come to this. And from here, everybody parks their own car and you all get into one person's car, maybe. Right. So that's carpooling, right? So you're, you're not, uh, there is no transit that takes you from there. This is what is called an automobile parking ride lot. Right? So an automobile parking lot. What happens is. Uh, if you are five friends who would want to ride together, uh, to your, uh, CBD, because all of your offices are very close to each other, then the CBD. So rather than that one friend go to each and everybody's house. What they usually do is since this is a very, uh, neighborhood, uh, closed by park and ride lot. Each of them likes to this lot. And then, uh, maybe you take turns. So on Monday you, uh, go with friends, his good friend A's car and Tuesday yeah. All the other cars are parked there or whatever it is, you get dropped off. Maybe you don't even park there. Maybe a family member drops you off at that location because it is close enough to your home. So that is kind of a neighborhood or a local park and ride lot. Uh, the other one is your regional park and ride lot now. Now what you're, uh, getting to is now you're coming out of your collector roads or your residential roads, and you are now on your primary arterial right now, this primary arterial may be connected to different residential areas, right? And now that you have a situation where there are five people in a car, there may be other situations. There are five people in a car, all of them are coming to this. Uh, regional parking lot, again, parking their car. And now, because this regional parking lot is well connected to the freeway on which there may be, you know, high-speed bus service, or maybe, uh, on the median of that freeway is your Metro service. So now you can again, park your car here and have access to your mass, rapid transit. So you see that could be two tiers. Of local, uh, parking lots and regional parking lots, which can then provide you access to your, um, mass rapid transit line, which is, uh, generally along, um, uh, your freeways or highways are, uh, uh, even sometimes they are on your arterials, but in this case, it is short on your highways. So this is the entire understanding of your travel from your. Residential areas to our CBD. Uh, sometimes the other ones are, uh, you have your, uh, uh, uh, uh, perimeter parking lots right around your CBD area, where you come, you are still driving, but you come here and then, uh, from this point onwards, you take your, uh, you take your, uh, public transportation, but like, if you see the pedophilia, pedophilia park and ride lots, you'll see that you would have already. Uh, driven the majority portion of your trip. So they are not that effective in reducing, uh, introducing, uh, um, uh, condition or in reducing. Uh, so now, uh, we'll quickly take you through a mathematical formulation of how to decide which site you want to locate your parking station at. Uh, the process that we are going to take you through is called the analytical hierarchy process. Uh, it is a multi-criteria decision making tool that allows you to, uh, achieve your goal, uh, by, by solving for a different criteria, uh, for different alternatives, right? Uh, so you may have, uh, two different, uh, three different alternative sites for your, uh, park and ride lot. And each of those sites, uh, uh, are, uh, um, uh, characterized by different characteristics, uh, based on those, uh, solving for those characteristics or criteria, you can then achieve the goal of picking one site from these three alternatives. So that is the entire idea of how a analytical hierarchy process works. You ultimately, your ultimate objective. Is to achieve the goal, the ultimate objective for the analysis. That can be only one goal for this analysis. That is the selection of a possible parking right facility. So that is your goal that you have to reach a criteria the basis on which the selection is made. There may be multiple criteria, hence this MCD and multiple multi-criteria decision making tool. For example, the different criteria, maybe the transit type, the passenger volume land use, et cetera. And the alternatives of course, is the various locations, uh, that are available to you in order to, uh, set up this apartment. Right. Right. So since, uh, the look, the siting of a location, Uh, would be based on different criteria, right? It will not be only based on the land price, for example, it will not be only based on, uh, how close is it to the, um, Metro Metro service? Uh, it will not be only based on, uh, what is the, uh, uh, pricing that I can. Uh, charged for parking. So they're not, they will not be only based on individual single criteria, but they'll be based on multiple criteria. So a solution that solves these, a solution that is reached by optimally, uh, solving for these multiple criteria. Uh, will allow you to, uh, uh, develop, uh, a or pick a site, uh, with, uh, uh, with much confidence rather than, uh, just picking a side, uh, admittedly. So for example, uh, in step one of these, uh, HP process, uh, you have already identified your goals criteria as an alternative. So, you know, You have three sites, uh, from, among which you have to choose a, and there are these criteria that are common to some sites. These are specific to some sites. So you developed all your criteria. And then, you know, obviously the goal is to, uh, pick one site. Uh, what you do is you go responses on pairwise comparison of criteria. So on a scale, on a certain, a five point scale on a seven point scale or a 10 point scale, you, uh, rate each of those criteria. Right. Uh, so think about, uh, this as a, uh, when you are trying to pick a phone, for example, uh, when you're trying to buy a mobile phone, uh, the different criteria in your head is how good is the camera? How good is the battery life? How good is the looks of the camera? So for each of those, you are giving a rating maybe, right? Uh, so similarly, think of these as a rating for different criteria for picking her. Uh, transit locations now who will give these ratings, maybe some experts will give these ratings. Maybe some users will give these ratings, right? There'll be multiple stakeholders who are involved in this would give these ratings. Now you would work with these ratings and then, uh, coming to a solution of picking up a site. So for example, one respondent may say that, uh, criteria one. Is highly significant as compared to criteria two. So whatever may be the criteria, he may give criteria one, a higher rating. Right? So this one, uh, if he gives a rating of one, meaning both criteria are, uh, equally important, uh, for this person. If he goes this way, criteria one is more important. If he goes. This way, right in a toys board. So that is the entire, uh, step to, uh, for formulation of data collection is to have responses collected from, uh, various, uh, stakeholders on where to, um, provide these, uh, facilities. Uh, so this is another example of a different respondent providing a different answer. So he or she does not pick a number, but picks a number in between. So you would have, uh, you'll have to interpolate, uh, that understanding once you do that, then you construct what is called a decision matrix. So this is the comparison of, uh, all the different criteria with respect to the goal. So the goal is to pick a site. So now you have different criteria's. Uh, so now you have to develop this decision matrix. So, uh, when compared to criteria one criteria five is. More, uh, um, uh, more important. So for example, criteria one was a criteria. Two has code five. So criteria fi two is more, uh, more, uh, important, uh, when compared to criteria one. Uh, whereas, uh, criteria three is less important when compared to criteria. Um, criteria one. So this is how you develop a decision. What is called a decision matrix from all the data that you have gathered, and you will see that obviously you're diagnosed would be one because you're not comparing criteria when I guess criteria one. So all of this would be one. So, uh, if it's, uh, if all the diagonal is one, uh, and in this matrix, uh, you would have all the values on one side is the reciprocal of the value on the other side. So that is how you develop, uh, the decision matrix for. The criteria's also, this is a comparison of the criteria with respect to the goal. Uh, similarly, what you do is you can start decision matrix for each of those. Uh criteria's uh, and comparing it with the alternatives. Now you have to do, uh, uh, decision matrix for each criteria against the three alternative sites, right? Just as you have done it for, uh, the criteria is against the goal. Which is this, the criteria is against the goal. Uh, you have to do for you or develop a decision matrix using the same responses that you've got from all the stakeholders, again, your diagnosis, uh, as one. And, uh, they are, uh, the inverse, uh, uh, the elements are inverse of each other, uh, across the diagonal. Uh, you develop it for each of these. Uh, how many of our, um, criteria you have in this case, you have three criteria, uh, in the next step. What you do essentially is to normalize. Now you have a matrix, how do you normalize the matrix? All you do is, uh, this is the matrix that you originally had for the criteria is you add up, uh, you add up the columns and then you, uh, divide, uh, individual cells. With the sub, right. We divide individual cells with a sum. And what you do is you develop a weighted average for the rows, right? A average for the rows, it's just the row average. Uh, so you add these three and divided by three because there are three of these and you've got these values. So you, uh, you, you, uh, first you, uh, uh, develop an, uh, normalized matrix. Uh, uh, from the existing, uh, decision matrix, uh, then you develop these extra, uh, this additional column of the row averages. You do similar calculations for, uh, for all the, uh, uh, alternatives with respect to the criteria.