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Module 1: Multimodal Transportation Systems

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Design of Multimodal Transfer Facilities

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In this lecture. Uh, we will be, uh, introducing you to the Uh, six different design principles that have to be followed, uh, when you design an intermodal or a multimodal facility, which actually integrates the different modes, uh, then we would, uh, get into, uh, what type of, uh, how much, uh, area or size of each of the elements within the. Uh, transport terminals that you have to provide. And then we will introduce you to, uh, uh, certain steps that need to be followed in order to review the design process. So when we talk about, uh, transfer terminals, or, uh, when we talk about multimodal terminals, uh, what essentially we are talking about, uh, is this, uh, is this. A small domain of, uh, uh, a small domain, which is an overlap, uh, between your understanding of a transit-oriented development. Uh, your understanding of a station area development and this larger concept of multimodal transportation planning. So if you look at multimodal transportation planning and, uh, Tod as, as to, uh, as two sets, uh, then the intersection of those two sets, uh, is where. Uh, transport terminal concept lies in that it means you have to have facilities that cater to different types of modes. Uh, just having a standalone, uh, or, or believing that a station facility is just a standalone facility for one mode, uh, will not, uh, promote multimodal transportation. Uh, it will, it will only promote individual modes of transportation. So when you design a station, say for example, for a bus. Or you also have to keep in mind that maybe, uh, at this top, uh, you have to provide good facilities for say, for example, bicycle parking, because maybe people will come here, uh, using their bicycles park the bicycles, and then take the. Uh, bus other rail. So although we may look at it, uh, we may look at the terminal design as a terminal, which is designed for a bus or rail transportation. But when we start thinking along the lines of multimodal ism, then we have to think that this terminal is not only catering to. The bus or the train mode, but also it is catering to the, uh, cycle mode, bicycle mode, or maybe it is also catering to the, uh, two Wheeler mode, a lot of, uh, motorized, two wheelers. People will come and park and then take. So we have to, we have to revise our thinking in this manner so that the design elements in that station building. Also catered to these other modes, right? It should not only exclusively cater to the bus or the rail mode, but it also has to cater to these other supporting modes. Uh, that is how you encourage, or you promote the use of the, these, uh, larger public transportation systems. And hence these terminal areas becomes very, very, okay. So that is the entire concept or entire theory behind, uh, you, uh, wanting to develop. Uh, the multimodal transport facilities are multimodal, uh, hubs or transit centers that we look at now, uh, you have to keep in mind this, uh, this ideology or this idea. Uh, so when we talk about, say first type of facility, if he's called them as a transfer facilities, what essentially, uh, we are seeing is that every station has to be viewed from the point of view, uh, offer transfer facility, right. Uh, imagine, uh, uh, even, uh, just simple bus stop. Now, if you think of a bus stop as a facility, that own, that is only needed. Uh, for the bus, right? If it is only needed for the bus, then we would be a miss, uh, uh, in our thinking because, uh, eventually one, once we get down from a bus, we have to take another mode to reach to our destination or our home or wherever we are going. Right. So the bus stop is also in a, in a, in a sense, a transfer facility or a multimodal facility. Well, Two or more other modes have to be well integrated. So as the simplest example is. Maybe the bus stop should be connected with a well with a good network of sidewalks, for example. So if you have good sidewalks, then what the bus stop essentially becomes a transfer point between the bus and the pedestrian mode. Right. It becomes a transfer point. Now the people have a safe. A facility to walk back to their home or walk to their final destination and also the, uh, facilitates the increasing use or the, uh, greater use of the bus mode as a means of travel within the city. So this is how, uh, we should, we should, uh, frame our thinking. Uh, when we, uh, talk about multimodal transport in the urban transportation concept, uh, every, every, uh, terminal or every, uh, transfer terminal that we design, we should not think that that is only for one mode. Right? So a BRT, for example, a BRT station that you see here. Uh, it is not only for the bus. It is not only for the bus rapid transplant. You have to have, for example, look at this, you have to have good, uh, um, uh, facilities for the pedestrians to cross once they get on, or once they're trying to get off the bus, right? Since this is a median type of a BRT. Nobody would be able to access this station from the foot part that is on the sides of the road. Right? So in order to access this, you need good connections. You need a zebra crossing to cross otherwise the BRT station. If you just think of this station terminal as a, as a terminal that serves only the bus, then you would not be able to develop a multimodal transportation network for your. City, you have to think of these terminals as multimodal terminals. Okay. So that is a simple example of a transfer terminal, right? It is just transferring a set of people. Or users between what? From one mode to the other mode now. Yeah, you should look at the various points that you should take into consideration. The station element should be consistent, consistent with existing stations. So once you're building a new station, maybe. Uh, don't design the station, uh, so very differently than any of the existing stations, then, uh, there will not be this ease of movement for, uh, for the people. And they would be, uh, lost, uh, suddenly when they come to a new station, uh, this station thinking that, Oh, how do I get off? Because they're not very familiar with it. Uh, this new design. So you may, you may aesthetically make it, uh, uh, a different looking station, but at least have the functional elements within the station that have some consistency, uh, within your network. The station area vehicle requirements, uh, should be consistent. Um, uh, I mean, uh, one station area has, uh, uh, two platforms versus the other station area has only one platform, uh, that makes it again a complex situation. So have your vehicle requirements. Uh, consistently across the stations, uh, you or your garage facilities have to be now coordinated. So maybe your BRT buses are a little bit buses that are longer, right? Maybe they accommodate more passengers. Whereas your regular buses that run on the street, maybe some shorter buses or fewer capacity buses. So the garage facility that you had maybe was only for those shorter buses, but now that the BRT system is coming, you had to have a garage that also facilitates. Uh, these longer buses, so, uh, facilitate meaning you have to have bus bays that are long enough for the buses to park. So again, when you're designing these things, don't just, again, design front garage for the buses, uh, that are going to run on the BRT corridor, uh, maybe retrofit the existing, uh, bus garage so that they can be used now for different types of buses that also becomes. Uh, not multimodal in this case, both are buses, so there are not multiple modes, but there are different categories of buses, maybe. So thinking those lines, uh, even within, uh, even within one mode. Right? Uh, so, uh, again, transport terminals, if you look at the primary functions of these stations, so functional elements, remember some elements are functional elements, whereas other elements are maybe aesthetics as critical, uh, aesthetic elements. So functional elements are very crucial in our designing of any station and that's what should be consistent across stations. Right? So the first function they have to be providing is to provide access to customers of all ages and abilities, right? So you have to have ramps so that differently abled people can use, can access these stations. Uh, you have to have those ramps will enable people, uh, even able to people. Uh, to, uh, carry that luggage, uh, to the station. Uh, uh, it will, it will help, uh, um, uh, people who are of older age to, uh, change levels. If your station have, it has multiple levels. So all of these are functional elements that has to be taken care of by each of these stations, access for pedestrians and people using wheelchairs or bicycles, including. Uh, bicycle providing bicycle parking. So that is the parking is another element that every station design, uh, has to take into consideration, uh, platforms. There has to be a certain size and certain, uh, width of platforms that have to be provided, which would enable the circulation of users that are using the, uh, using the station. Uh, waiting shelters for all public transit routes, serving that station, right? You have to have shelters, uh, more and more public transport agencies are now providing at least some basic type of shelter at every stop or at every station. Uh, you hardly find in any, uh, good, uh, public transportation network. You hardly find any stops, uh, bus stops or train stops. Uh, that just has a signpost and nothing else. Uh, there has to be a shelter for protection against, uh, harsh weather, uh, so that, uh, people who are trying to access these, uh, public transportation systems are, uh, are taken care of and provision of for, for short term pick-up drop-off of transit patrons by Chatelet taxi, et cetera. So what, what, the other thing, uh, that, uh, usually people, uh, are against. Uh, at providing, uh, at the, um, against, for providing at the, um, stations are permanent parking, uh, because what that encourages are, what that allows people to do is, uh, drive to these Metro stations or BRT stations and then park, and then take, uh, take the Metro or the, uh, that usually, uh, does not solve the purpose of. Uh, urban public transportation, uh, you, because you are still, uh, making a part of your trip by a private vehicle or a single occupancy vehicle. So it is not fulfilling the sustainability, uh, that we are trying to achieve in public, uh, in urban transportation. So hence you do not provide for a long-term parking or full-day parking, uh, for vehicles, but you should provide some minimum basic parking that will allow people to maybe pick up and drop off. Passengers from those stations. Now, these, these may not be provided at all stations, but maybe at terminal stations or maybe at, uh, major, uh, stations where there's a lot of activity, a big residential complex, or a big, uh, commercial complex or something. So such stations should have at least, uh, the facility to a circulation pattern, for example, to pick up and drop off, or a 10 minute parking where people can wait. Uh, as, as the buses arriving or as the train is arriving and to pick up and drop off their, uh, either child or friend or spouse or whoever it is. So, uh, that type of facility should also be thought off because that is one of the primary functions of any station. Uh, similarly, uh, you can then think of another category of station calling a transit center. Now our transit center is a little bit bigger and has more infrastructure associated with it because. Now at a transit center, what happens is, uh, you are connecting two modes, uh, that are, uh, that, that have dual connections. Right. So, uh, you may be, uh, developing, uh, a transit center where, uh, suburban or, um, intercity rail is connected to a intercity bus.So there may be, so they have only Sheffield collection schedule they're run on some fixed schedule. Right. Uh, so these centers enable these are, these are large. Yeah, because these are large infrastructure, a piece of infrastructure which needs a lot of land. Uh, and, uh, what happens is. Uh, once people arrive from a smaller city to this transit hub or this transit center, uh, by bus, then they wait a considerable amount of time before, uh, the shell departure of their train, maybe from the same, uh, hub or transit center.So, uh, what this requires, uh, you will see that, uh, these, uh, usually serve higher daily passenger volumes. And it requires a larger area, uh, passenger waiting area, because there will be passengers who will be waiting for a, for a longer period of time at these centers. But these are very, very effective centers. Now, otherwise you would have had. Two different, uh, pieces of, uh, uh, infrastructure. One is a bus Terminus versus another is a rail Terminus. Now both of these are integrated into one big transit center, so that, uh, allows for, uh, uh, saving of, uh, land, which is prime, uh, in many of our urban areas and also, uh, makes, uh, the transfer, uh, much more seamless between these two modes. Uh, a smaller, a smaller variety of those hubs or transit centers could be something called a transit layover where Ms. Server location, where transit vehicles, either bus or layover or wait to enter the service location. So these are, uh, these are, uh, end of line stations are even, uh, a station that is beyond the end of the line where. Uh, the transcript is waiting for to start its service, right. Uh, we have learned about what is the layover time. So, uh, at the end of a run, uh, the transit vehicles have to turn around to begin a new run. Uh, so while they turn around, there may be a facility there for the drivers to wait and so on and so forth. So that may be a transit layover facility, uh, park and ride, uh, are very, um, I have been tried extensively in the urban areas. Uh, to promote, uh, uh, public transportation, uh, where, uh, people, uh, uh, do drive their vehicles, uh, and they have a whole day parking over, uh, for a day or even overnight parking sometimes, uh, they drive the park, their private vehicles there, and then they take, uh, some other form of, uh, public transportation, either a bus. Or, uh, uh, you will even have, uh, park and fly facilities, right? You have a remote parking places for airports nowadays, because land, especially for airports that are within the city boundaries, uh, land is becoming sparse. So what happens is you have remote. Parking, uh, from where you have shuttles that take you to the actual airport terminal, right? So those are park and fly, uh, hubs or centers, I think so now that you understand what is a multimodal system, so every kind of station area or a hub or a center is not just, uh, Harbor center that serves four that serves one particular mode. But it is a center that serves multiple modes. So yeah, design that center, keeping in mind the necessities of the two or three modes that it is serving, not just design it, keeping in mind one particular mode. So that is the entire idea. We'll look into park and ride a little bit more detailed because, uh, that is, uh, has been extensively tried. Uh, two, uh, uh, and has been also found to be beneficial in attracting people to take, uh, urban public transportation. Uh, now, if you look at a six design principle, uh, for these, uh, stations, the first design principle is to how to locate a station. And we have extensively looked at and give a new mathematical, uh, formulations of, uh, how, uh, how should we determine the spacing between stations? So keeping those formulations in mind, uh, you already know where to locate these stations. Usually these stations should be in places that attract visitors or workers, uh, near major trip generators, for example, maybe movie hall, shopping mall schools, et cetera. Uh, and hence land use plays a very important role of where you locate these stations. Provide frequently used, uh, services near a transit station. So shops, restaurants, and childcare. So that is the whole idea of a transit oriented development is to, uh, design your, uh, your station as not just a station terminal, but as a multi-use facility, you can have restaurants, you can have even, uh, office building office blocks. You can have residential blocks around, uh, or even, uh, multi-story buildings on top of the. Transit hub or the station, and that makes it a Tod or a transit-oriented development. And that, uh, serves, uh, that becomes, uh, a very good example of, uh, achieving sustainable team, urban transportation, uh, to encourage patronage of business, uh, place them between vehicle parking areas and the transit stop. Right. So all of these are where to put. Uh, where to exactly locate a transit station, uh, is, uh, one of the design principles that you have to keep in mind when you are thinking about, uh, location. Uh, when you're thinking about, um, uh, developing a station, the first design principle is, uh, look at the transit station location. The second is, uh, station circulation. So once you have decided where you have to, uh, locate your station, Then you have to, uh, design, uh, appropriately for, uh, um, the circulation within the station area. And the hierarchy of circulation, uh, is obviously the pedestrians comes first in circulation because people will be walking mostly. Uh, around your, uh, within your station area. So how do you, uh, uh, appropriately, uh, in corporate, all the pedestrian space requirements, uh, which we have already looked at again, where we developed the level of service for, uh, for pedestrians, there was an example for a terminal, for a station area level of service as well. So that will help you in designing, uh, the circulation areas for pedestrians. Uh, then of course, bicycle feeder buses. These are all, uh, outside the station coming into the station. Right? So, uh, your design, when you design a building, you have to have circulation areas for bikes, uh, for buses, feeder buses, uh, taxi auto drop-off and also, uh, cars. If you decide to provide some parking for cars. So station circulation, uh, is the second principle that you have to remember, uh, while, uh, designing. Uh, station area, uh, the third is bicycle and I'm a pedestrian, a pedestrian and bicycle parking, uh, it's pedestrian and bicycle parking. Obviously there's no pedestrian part King. So when we talk about, uh, parking areas, bicycle parking was never given much taught until the turn of the century where people really started to, uh, urban planners and, uh, urban transportation engineers started to. Uh, research much more into, uh, how, uh, bicycling can be beneficial, uh, to the public transportation network. They found that bicycle, uh, is, is, is, uh, is a, uh, inexpensive mode is a environment friendly mode. Uh, although they cannot take you long distances. But they can definitely bring you to the nearest Metro station or a BRT station or a bus station. Right. They can definitely people bicycle at least three, four, five kilometers, uh, effortlessly an average bicyclists is what I'm talking about. If you're a regular bicyclists, you can go even further, but even an average bicyclist can bicycle everyday for three, four kilometers. And if you are within that range, uh, if you're a Metro station or BRT station is within that range. Then you should be encouraged to get your bicycle to the station. And once you get it to the station, then you have to have proper parking, otherwise, uh, informal parking of bicycle, uh, that we often witnessed around stations does not attract new people to take the Metro stations. Those are mostly people who will be captive writers, who would be using the Metro station. If you do not provide. Uh, appropriate parking because nowadays, even bicycles are expensive. Some of the bicycles new bicycles are expensive, so you have to provide for a good parking, good parking spots, safe parking spots, uh, in order to encourage people to use, um, uh, uh, BRT or MRT or any form of MRT. Right. Uh, then it is access. We have already looked at access. Uh, it is usually encouraged that access be provided at a grade. So, uh, for example, uh, if you have such an, um, uh, grade separated access point, which are very popular in, uh, or which have been extensively built in, uh, to connect the Mumbai suburban railways, Uh, to various points of the road network. Uh, but, uh, they often, uh, you know, face the criticism that, uh, are not well-maintained. Um, does that provide security at night? So it becomes a challenge. Once you have that expensive piece of infrastructure, uh, which then requires continuous maintenance, you can have them, uh, especially in Mumbai where you have to separate, uh, pedestrian traffic with the, um, uh, motorized traffic. But, um, more often than not, uh, for your, uh, city, which may not be as large as Mumbai, uh, you would rather, you would be rather recommended to provide ad grade, uh, ad grade, uh, uh, uh, uh, facilities rather than great separated access facilities to Metro stations or BRTs stations, uh, try to provide, uh, like we already looked at covered by, uh, covered parking facilities. Uh, Uh, add grid, station access parts. So these are more attractive because once you provide great separated, then, uh, people with luggage are not, usually are, want to stick out, climb up the stairs and climb down the stairs with it. Uh, old people would not use it. Even people in a hurry would not use it. They would say that I just, I have minimal risk if I. Cross the road at grade versus if I, uh, take this. So, uh, grid separated access is, uh, has to be very carefully designed and carefully, uh, provided. Uh, they are not for every location, uh, are not even for an average location. They may be for specialized locations. You can have, uh, great separated access points, but mostly you have to have ad grid, uh, access to, uh, these station areas. Uh, the fifth design principle is, uh, design or stations surrounding areas, uh, carefully as well. Not only look at, uh, your, uh, uh, station building, uh, itself and believe that that is your only jurisdiction that you're planning for are designing for, but also, uh, your design should incorporate some of these surrounding areas as well. Uh, make sure that you have. Uh, good connections, good pedestrian connections. Make sure if there are, uh, signalized intersections close to your, uh, station areas, uh, the signal timings are such that they benefit the people getting in and out of your station because that, that signalized intersection that is close to yours, uh, it should benefit the, uh, station users rather than the vehicles that are going. Through, uh, not stopping at the station. So those, uh, uh, those, uh, signal timings, uh, those pedestrian crossings, uh, that are allowing people to get into the station has to be also part of your design of the station. Building that often what happens is, uh, our transit authority, uh, does not have jurisdiction over the surrounding area and they leave it to another. Uh, entity to design that. And then when you don't, uh, coordinate with that entity, then you end up with a station area with not proper access. Uh, and then people, uh, the patronage of public transportation goes down. So rather you take it into your jurisdiction itself, say that. Okay. Uh, 100 meter radius around my, uh, station perimeter is what my jurisdiction is and I'll design everything. Uh, within that jurisdiction and, uh, safely take my, uh, user from the station building, uh, from the station area to D uh, uh, urban transportation network of the city. So keep that in mind, uh, always, uh, always include the station area in your design, and finally. The passenger waiting area and weather shelter, we've already looked at a very important aspect. You have to have, even if you have a basic shelter like that, but it is, uh, you rather towards having the basic shelter than not having it. Uh, this plays a huge role in, uh, attracting people to, uh, riding, uh, to ride public transportation. Uh, because especially during, especially in India, where we have heavy monsoon seasons, Uh, summer heat is extreme. So these are, these do provide a lot of comfort when people are, uh, when people are accessing public transportation. Uh, of course some transit centers need to have, uh, even more sophisticated facilities because. Uh, people are going to be, uh, transferring between two modes, for example. So there'll be a sitting for a longer period of time. So maybe that needs to be eateries and, uh, other amenities that needs to be present. So when you design for a station, you need to be, uh, you need to be thinking about all of these elements. Once now that you've followed all these design principles. Now you have to look at certain standards for sizing, your different facilities that you provide within the station. Right? And many of these sizes you have already looked at when we were individually looking at each of these modes, for example, for their level of service and so on, so forth, but, uh, very quickly you have to have. Uh, say for example, a minimum pedestrian wheelchair, uh, clear part of six feet, uh, with eight feet, uh, six to eight feet is preferred, right? So when you provide, uh, a part of the path cannot be any narrower than six feet, then a wheelchair person would not be able to a person with a wheelchair would not be able to. Uh, access that, uh, station. So such standards that are available, uh, for, uh, they may not be available, uh, for our context in India, but best practices are available and these are from the best practices. Uh, but we can adopt and adapt, uh, these standards to our necessity, uh, to our requirements. And, uh, the that's where the whole point of this class or this exercise is to, uh, is to, uh, make you aware of the standards, uh, so that you can take it forward. Uh, uh, similarly, when you are sizing your waiting and shelter area, you should not be just putting in a canopy. For example, you should, you should understand. What size of the shelter that will allow you to, Oh, that will allow your passengers, uh, to be, uh, comfortably seated under the shelter. Right? So bus shelters provide, should provide a minimum of five square foot per person during the peak period. So that should be at least five square feet. For one person to be comfortably, uh, sitting or standing, uh, under a shelter. So that based on how many people would be there, then you can determine the size of the shelter in that station. Right? Just do not arbitrarily pick a size or a picker length or width of your shade. Again, rail stations, shelters should resume approximately 3.52. Uh, six square feet per person. So there are some ranges, there are some standards, there are some best practices that you need to follow for, uh, station, uh, waiting and shelter areas. Uh, similarly for platform elevation, uh, you should always try to have. The platform area a little bit, uh, um, uh, above the curb. Uh, but however, uh, how, uh, how much aligned to the football, uh, that you want to have your, uh, um, uh, platform is something that you have to decide if there are, if you have it at grade with the, uh, with the foot board, then you have to have, uh, uh, much, uh, uh, uh, um, um, uh, uh, much, uh, ticker, uh, Uh, height, uh, off your platform. Uh, otherwise, uh, that, that enables, uh, for example, people with old age, are people in old age or people with disabilities to easily enter into your transit vehicle, right? Uh, if there is a great separation, if you're a, if you're a, uh, platform is not level with the, uh, with the bus platform or the rail, uh, uh, platform, then you did as a level of difference, it becomes difficult for, uh, people to access it. Uh, if there are a platform which can be different based on how platforms are oriented, if you have a center plus site platform. So you've got two, uh, rail lines are here and you have a platform here and also two platforms on the other side, then the width of each of the platform would be different. Versus if you're, if you only have a center platform where both of these lines are being served by only one platform. Then the width of that would be different. Versus if you have only site platforms, uh, on either side and no center platform, then you have your which different. So all of these have to be thought about for your, uh, uh, for your purpose, for your particular station and you have to design it accordingly. Uh, platform length is the next element. How long should be your platform? Right. How long should be your platform. So it has been noticed from best practices for, uh, light rail transit systems, uh, two 70 feet to accommodate a three car train. So three car train could be accommodated into the length of the platform because, you know, no point having long platforms, because in the middle of the urban area, you are taking up, a lot of space becomes expensive to build. So you have to have an optimal amount of, uh, platform length also built in. But then you have to have some cushion as well. Right? If you increase a car, if you add, if you add an additional car to the train, that if you don't have a platform, uh, then you will not be able to add that. So have some cushion, but then don't have, uh, don't, uh, have, uh, uh, a whole lot of platform, uh, whole, uh, large length of the platform because then land becomes expensive to build, uh, similarly commuter rails, have different lengths, uh, platform, length standards. Uh, BRT, uh, based on where it is is it's on a highway or an urban arterial. They have different, uh, length, uh, standards or suggestions or recommendations, which needs to be followed. Passenger information is something that, uh, is becoming essential, especially if it's a transit center or a transit hub where people wait, uh, and, uh, for the next bus or the next train to arrive.