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Module 1: Multimodal Transportation Systems

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Multimodal Transportation Environment

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In this first class, what we are going to look at Uh, uh, the, uh, different multimodal transportation planning concepts, uh, what are the key considerations for multimodal transportation? Uh, give you some examples of multimodal transportation systems in India and look at how do you assess them, uh, with respect to public transportation, right? We have to assess, uh, what is multimodal, uh, if the or multimodal system is working good are so what is a multimodal transportation planning, right. Uh, we already always have, uh, different modes in our, uh, in our, uh, urban transportation system that we have, uh, buses. We have metros, we have, uh, commuter rail. We have autistic shares. There are a multitude of modes. So what is the meaning of multimodal transportation? Uh, and why is why that has to be, uh, dealt with, uh, differently or separately from individual transport individuals. Uh, urban transportation modes. So what, uh, if you look back, uh, into the history of urban transportation, what we have been trying to do, uh, for many decades now is to, uh, concentrate our efforts in, um, developing, uh, tools that enable, uh, the movement of, um, uh, vehicles in our urban transportation system, right? Uh, uh, after the advent of the automobile, Uh, it became the dominant mode of transport in many of our urban, urban areas around the world, even in India. Uh, so then we started to solve the problem of the, uh, automobile, right? How to, uh, how to manage it better, how to, uh, forecast it better, uh, by better forecasting. Uh, we may provide the facilities for it in a better manner. So, uh, so if you look at the traditional four four-step, uh, A four step, uh, planning process, uh, was this trip generation, uh, distribution, motorize, and, uh, and assignment. Uh, all of that is focused. Towards a four Wheeler towards your private car, right? It is not even focused much towards a motorized public transportation. And it is definitely not geared towards non-motorized transportation like bicycle or pedestrians. So we have, we have been, uh, historically been, uh, looking at, uh, urban transportation, purely from the prism of. Um, uh, four Wheeler transportation, four Wheeler, motorized transportation, and, uh, automo, automobile transportation. Uh, essentially, and all our land uses are also geared towards, uh, that kind of, um, system. Right? Uh, we have, we want to have, uh, uh, a wide enough road even in our neighborhood so that we can accommodate a car. Our car, uh, getting into her neighborhood, right? We do not like narrow streets because then, uh, how can I access my car? Where should I park my car? So even our, even our land users, even our transportation network, everything is geared towards a private automobile, especially the four belief, not, not even the a two Wheeler. So this has been the conventional way of urban transportation planning. But what multimodal transportation planning does is. It not only looks at your single occupancy costs, right. But it looks at all the other modes available to you in your urban area and tries to integrate them. Right. Multimodal transportation in one way is to, is to plan for various modes, which include walking, cycling, automobile, public transit, and connections among these modes. This whole concept, a Rose because more and more urban transport, uh, more and more urban transport professionals saw that despite there being a good public transportation network in, in a city, uh, people were not using that public transportation system at all. So then, uh, they, uh, at all, meaning that the ride share was way below the, uh, uh, more chair off, uh, Private cars. Uh, so what this started to, uh, uh, then, uh, uh, research is that maybe there is not enough access, uh, to these, uh, public transportation systems. So the minute you talk about access now, uh, different modes becomes, um, um, uh, becomes a higher priority. Uh, they become a more important, different, uh, different types of modes now, uh, for access. Pedestrian modes is very important for access. Bicycle modes are very important, right? Should there come there came the need for integrating these different modes? Uh, so even, even when you're talking about single occupancy cars, You need to park them somewhere and then access your final destination, maybe, right? Not every time you will find parking right at your destination. But if you look at any of the major metropolitan cities in India today, uh, it's very difficult to find parking, uh, where your final destination is. Maybe you park, uh, 500 meters away. You then have to walk. So then C. Uh, if you don't have good walking infrastructure, then you face a problem. Maybe that a business loses out because now, uh, people are not accessing that business. Right? So there's economics now starting to get involved. So all of these aspects are integrated within. Uh, uh, our talked about our research within this umbrella of multimodal transportation. So what people started seeing was if you, if you, if you, if you consider multimodal transportation, uh, you will be, uh, developing, uh, a more green and sustainable transportation for urban areas. Also, you will be efficiently or effectively using your modes that are available to you. Right. A lot of people walk on Indian streets. A lot of people use bicycles, but, uh, are they, uh, efficiently using the space or is there even space available for them to, uh, um, uh, uh, go from one point to the other, right? You are, we are, uh, we are, despite there being so much, so high ridership are so high. More shared for these modes. Uh, we are not effectively or efficiently utilizing them, uh, or encouraging them to use these modes more and more. So multimodal transportation planning does that. And, uh, and, and, and if you look at it from the other perspective of freight, uh, freight has. Always been multimodal. Right? If you look at, uh, uh, any kind of shipment, think about anything that you ordered online today, for example, right. It may come from a different country, right? So it may include a, it may include a ship, uh, that is bringing your good on an or an airplane that is bringing your good, uh, goods. Right? So there's one, one or two modes right there. Then it comes to the country and then maybe it has to be transferred on rail or on truck. Uh, so there are a couple of modes right there. Uh, and then finally, the last mile delivery is on a motorcycle aura or a smaller truck, right? So there are so many modes that are already involved in, uh, in, uh, uh, multimodal freight, um, uh, shipment. So freight has always, always been multimodal, but passenger has never been multimodal. So a lot of the multimodal concepts in passenger transport. Uh, uh, being developed, keeping in mind this, this, this value team or this supply chain is logistics of freight, right? Because freight values. Dying a whole lot. If you, especially if you're ordering some goods that are, uh, uh, uh, perishable goods, which which have to be, uh, would have to be reached very quickly, uh, to the destination, then time becomes money. So this concept of time becoming money is what is the essence of, uh, even, uh, urban, uh, passenger multimodal transportation, where you say that, uh, if you integrate these modes, people may be, uh, We will reach or we'll access their destinations quicker. But other than if you not integrate them and allow them to run, uh, parallel and do their own thing. Right. So that is the entire concept of multimodal transportation. Uh, uh, again, these are, uh, what we have already looked at accessibility and efficiency are the two words that are associated with multimodal transportation. Uh, we are no longer, uh, wanting to only provide mobility, right. Uh, mobility is something which is associated with, uh, vehicular transportation a whole lot, um, in vehicle or transportation a whole lot, uh, where people want to reach between. Two points the fastest and the fastest manner that is kind of mobility, but it's accessibility is you want to access the locations rather than just, uh, Gore between two points, uh, in a, in a, um, in a quick, uh, manner. So we are more and more looking at accessibility now, uh, uh, transfer points are becoming, uh, crucial, right? We've, uh, looked at when you're looking at, uh, Uh, station design in the previous lectures of this class, uh, one of those stations could be, uh, transit stations where multiple modes are involved. Right. Uh, so, uh, terminal stations, uh, model transport is becoming very, very important in multimodal transportation. Uh, uh, the different components like we have already looked at, uh, our demand, everything is coming from a demand and supply supply chain management, kind of, uh, uh, point of view, uh, where time is money. So, uh, all of the modes have to be integrated in a, uh, good fashion in a, in a, in a, in a, in an efficient manner so that people can move from one point to other, uh, uh, very quickly, uh, it, there has to be a lot of ICT devices that are. Uh, integrated, uh, uh, all that is providing information to the end user, right? Uh, if you don't integrate these different systems are different supply chains together and don't provide that information. Like for example, many times we get annoyed. When we see that the, we have shipment, uh, received. Uh, 3.8 information, but after that, a system is not updating and we don't know whether the, uh, there are, uh, letter or whatever we have sent has actually reach the destination or not. So that is called, uh, integrating information systems. Also, uh, information systems have to be integrated across, uh, different supply chains. Uh, and of course there has to be now a lot of inter organizational, uh, coordination right now that we are talking about integration. So this organization was now operating on its own. The other organization was operating on its own, but now they have to be integrated or there has to be a link that, so those are essentially the main components. And this is an example of, uh, how land use and transportation integration, uh, can be achieved through multimodal transportation. Uh, traditionally, if you know, the four step model, we always assume we always give up, we always assume, uh, land use plan and then, uh, give our, uh, solutions for traffic based on that assumption. Right? So we are not really integrating the land use in, we're not really integrating the transportation into the land use. We're just taking the land use as a given, and then. Uh, bringing the solutions of transportation. It has to be, uh, when we, when we now, uh, uh, look at the new, um, uh, means of integrating, uh, land use and transportation, from the point of view of multimodal transportation, what we see is that we have to, we have to coordinate much more. We have to coordinate much more between. Uh, land use and transportation, and we have to see that, uh, they are dynamically related, right? Uh, you cannot assume a land use and then try to impose a transportation solution on it, or rather, uh, neither can you assume, uh, network and then, uh, have a land use plan developed on it. It has to be developed parallelly. It has to be developed synchronously so that, uh, access is provided to everybody. Right? So that multimodal. Uh, transportation can be improved. Uh, like you said, if you look at accessibility and mobility, like we said, we are now shifting away a little bit from mobility and moving more towards accessibility. So you see that, uh, airplane provides the highest mobility that it can take people from point a to point B uh, very, the fastest, right? That was always what a mobility always meant. But when you look at urban transportation, for example, in urban transport, this is more. Interoperable transportation. But if you start looking at urban transportation mode, car provided the maximum mobility. It took people very quickly between, uh, between each of them. However, bus and subway bus provides the least mobility and Sabine provided, uh, uh, kind of, uh, uh, intermediate mobility. But now we are looking at it from the point of view of. Accessibility as well. See in our, uh, if we don't change the land use, if we don't make a system multimodal, we would still be believing that car is the one that provides the highest accessibility as well. So for example, if you provide, uh, parking, uh, at every location at every destination, then, well, you can use your car and, uh, access that destination, uh, perfectly fine, but you know, that. Uh, providing parking at CBD especially is very, very difficult, right? You cannot ever. So, so the land use has to be then changed and said that no, we cannot provide a land use of parking. We have to use that for other means. So parking has to be farther away. And if parking is to be farther away, then God starts losing out on it. Accessibility guard starts. No, no, we are no longer, very accessible. Yeah, we cannot provide so much accessibility now because the land is more multimodal, uh, in nature. Uh, the land use supports more multimodal nature of transportation and not just a car oriented neighborhood. Right. So that is the difference between, uh, car and, uh, uh, under kind of a bus and subway when it comes to mobility versus accessibility. Uh, also if you look at it from different. Types of roads. Arterials usually provide higher mobility because they provide fast speed. They have fewer access points and multiple lanes and so on and so forth. Whereas local roads, they provide a high degree of accessibility, but their mobility is very low because there's narrow streets. You cannot go faster, but narrow streets can go into any location and provide access to that location.Right. So that is the difference between accessibility and mobility and. Multimodal transportation supports accessibility by not compromising on mobility as well. Right? Does not compromise the mobility, but it brings accessibility into the forefront. It says that first you have to be accessible. Then you could be providing mobility in the same fashion. Uh, this is just an institutional framework, uh, example, uh, where you have to, like we said, different organizations now and all of them have to be integrated. Uh, we will look at one example right here, uh, where, uh, if you take the, uh, integrated multimodal public transportation network for it. Uh, for, um, uh, the national capital region, uh, of Delhi. What you will see is that, uh, Delhi is trying to develop a multimodal system, uh, where it has, uh, integrating, uh, where it has integrated smart cards, which can be used on Delhi, Metro, and also on. Uh, that, uh, uh, Metro buses, right? So now you don't have to, uh, you don't have to, uh, pay different fairs when you are getting on a bus versus when you're getting on the Metro. And what that makes is what that makes your life easier. And it makes it more, uh, uh, seamless, your travel becomes more seamless and now maybe you will be encouraged to use public transportation. Whereas previously, maybe you had Metro, but then you did not have the, uh, feeder bus at the end. And so you had to walk almost one kilometer to reach your destination, and that was not appealing to you. So you said that, well, I have my two Wheeler. I'll just take my two Wheeler and go to my destination and forget about it. Using the Metro, but now what a delimiter has done is it has developed this integrated, uh, smart cards. Now you don't even add has developed the feeder network. Of course. So what it now allows you to do is you get off at your destination Metro station, but there will be a bus, uh, that you can access from that and go to your final destination without, with just that one smart card, you don't even have to. Pay it twice, or you just have to tap that smart card twice, maybe, uh, to, uh, pay for your entire journey. So that is the kind of multimodal transportation, integrated transportation, integrated Arbonne transportation that we are trying to teach you through. This course, we have taught you the individual elements of it. Now we are trying to give you a picture of combining these various elements together in this last module. Uh, the other example, uh, is the, uh, is the, uh, Kashi intermodal station, which is, uh, uh, in just outside Varanasi, where they have, uh, existing railway station, uh, within, uh, which is, uh, uh, under the Indian railways, but what they are now trying to convert that existing railway station, uh, into, uh, into a, a proposed. Railway station interested, Buster Munis, as well as an inland waterway terminal. So it is very, it is right on the banks of the river Ganga. Uh, so what they're trying to do, convert that into intermodal. Uh, uh, inter models, uh, transit station, so where people can get off, uh, if, you know, if you're familiar with, uh, Varanasi, you know, that people do use, uh, boats to access the various cards, uh, locals do use that. So now those people who are using the boats to come to this. Station can come there and then take on a bus and go to other destinations where they want to go to, uh, or people who are, uh, getting off the railway station at Kashi. They can now take, uh, the boats and go to their homes, our local destinations inside, uh, inside, uh, Varanasi. So what this is allowing you to do is now this is allowing you to develop one nodal point. Uh, with a lot of integration between bus rail and, uh, what are modes and by doing so it is encouraging, uh, or, uh, it's encouraging the people to use public transportation modes. And it is on the other hand, discouraging people from using. Your private modes, right? So otherwise what you would have done is if you're a gotten off at the Kashi station, you would have asked somebody to come and pick you up. And most likely that person would have come in their own car or rented a car. And that car would have added to congestion on the roads and all that stuff. So now you have easy access to maybe the boat, a ferry system, you'll get on the ferry and just go to your local destination where you want to go, or you have public transportation in the form of buses. And the bus can take you. So that is an intermodal. Again, intermodal terminal. Those kinds of terminals are very, very essential, uh, in a multimodal transportation network. Otherwise you wouldn't have this connection between these different modes, right? So now when you look at it from the point of view of, uh, your daily commute, And public transportation. How, how, say for example, you are at your home, you take an auto to go to your nearest bus stop or your Metro station, then you get on the, uh, and then your bus takes you to your final destination. And then you walk from there, uh, to your, uh, work destination, right? This is usually what, uh, most likely many of us do. Uh, so even, even, even not even by thinking you are being multimodal, if you use public transportation, especially you'll be using. So all these links now become very, very important. So your, your, your, your, uh, your auto, your availability of your auto rickshaws become important, or your final walking from your final destination. So you should have good, proper sidewalks, proper seating, maybe all of those become very important. Otherwise you would not. Make this entire of Ripon public transportation. So now that you understand these multimodal transportation systems, you also have to evaluate how well they are working, right. Uh, should I make my trip multimodal or should I just make it uni model or just take my private, uh, God or private tubular and access my destination? What should you choose? So in order to choose between them, you have to have certain metrics. That, uh, you can, uh, follow in your mind and say that, okay, if this metric is larger or this metric is smaller, I will use this. Uh, I'll make this choice versus that choice. So there are some measurement indices, uh, that quickly allows you to do so. Uh, say the travel time ratio is the travel time of public transport divided by our time by car. So for example, uh, if the ratio is larger, meaning the driver time where public transport is too high. Between two D two destination between the origin and destination, then the less competitive is the public transport. Then more likely you are likely to use your own God. Right? Because car provides the quickest time because that is how traditionally our streets have been designed to, uh, reduce the travel time on car. Right? So the quickest travel time, but the public transportation time should not be so high. Should see. For example, it fluctuates between one to five. So it should not be that the public transportation time is say for example, three times as the time taken on car, right. If it becomes three times. So, uh, so a car, I can reach my destination in 15 minutes, whereas a, it will take me 45 minutes. If I take public transportation, then the public transportation system is inefficient. Then you cannot have a good multimodal system in your city. So that is one, uh, metrics that allows you to, uh, quickly check. How good is your, uh, multimodal transportation network in your city? Similarly, there is an other metric, uh, another level of service metric, which tells you that the out of vehicle travel time by, uh, divided by the in vehicle travel time has to be as low as possible. Because the larger the ratio, uh, the larger the ratio, the less attractive is public transportation out of vehicle. Travel time. You must be familiar with it by now is the time that it takes you to access any of the stations, any of the, uh, nodes, uh, whereas in vehicle travel time is while you are on the public transportation route and you're traveling on it. So it should not, the access time should not be too high when compared to the actual travel time on the, on the transit lane, then. Your level of service drops and public transportation becomes less attractive. Similarly, these are, uh, other, some, uh, three other ratios, which are easy to understand. You can follow through them. And if we quickly look at one problem, uh, which allows us to, uh, determine how good these mattresses are in your, in your city, uh, determine, uh, the TTR, the level of service and I are for a Metro system between. Do origin between the origin destination pair who's writers had to follow had the following average, uh, travel times, the commuter undergoes multiple access and egress travel in order to use the Metro system. Also comment on the performance of the public transportation system. So for example, you are access time to the Metro stop is 10 minutes. Once you get off the Metro stop, you have to regress. Time is 14 minutes. Uh, your transfer time, uh, there is a transfer time involved, so maybe you're changing lines, uh, changing two lines in a Metro station. Uh, the transfer time is, uh, a minute and a half. Your waiting time at the transfer point is about five minutes. Uh you're in vehicle travel times. So as you travel on the Metro is 20 minutes and all of this versus your journey taken by a car. If you took the same journey by car, it would take you just. 30 minutes. Now, if you are, if this is your real life scenario, is would you choose to ride the Metro or not? That is what the decision you are going to make. Okay. So if you just, uh, uh, calculate each of these mattresses, you will see that, uh, the travel time ratio is 1.46, so that our I've taken by public transportation divided better time taken by car is 1.46. So what does that tell you? The public transport isn't seems to be competing with the car mode. Uh, so it seems to be all it is higher. Remember it fluctuates between one to five and it is only 1.46, so we can never expect it to be same. I mean, if the same as the public transportation as the car mode, then it's the most attractive, or if it is in less than the car mode. Then you are in, uh, you are in multimodal heaven almost. Uh, and, uh, that is a way it's a good system, but even if it is only a 1.46, so it is not very bad. It is still competing, decided to compete with the car, uh, for your choice, right? It is, it is not a bad model. Uh, the level of service provided, uh, by out of vehicle travel time, divided with the in-vehicle travel time while you are. On the Metro system, right? This is only when you on the Metro system is 1.2. So it seems like the public transportation is attractive. Your access modes are good. The there are a good number of access modes that is providing you a decent access to the Metro station. So that is also good. And then finally, the interconnectivity ratio, which is the access plus egress time divided by the total travel time is 0.5, five. So what that tells you is access. Plus this time is greater than 50% of the travel time. This suggests that the connectivity repeated required may require some improvement. That that means it is taking some more. It is taking a lot of time. 50% of the time is going only towards accessing or egressing. Uh, uh, your Metro system, right? Uh, so maybe your access and egress. Uh, maybe you're walking now. Maybe there is a need for public bicycle sharing system, for example, that will reduce your access plus egress time, uh, versus your total travel time. So that is what this ratio is telling you. So now, you know where you are system. Where you're a multimodal system in your urban area stance. Now, once you know where it stands, now you can make appropriate improvements to your public transportation for your land, use different things, right. That will allow us to make that would allow the public transportation system to be more attractive and that don't attract more people taking the public transportation system. So this is an example by which you can quickly measure. This is a very. Uh, that's simple ratios that allows you to measure how good your multimodal transportation system in your city is.