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Module 1: Intelligent Transportation Systems

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Public Bicycle Sharing System with ITS

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So in this last lecture module of this its, uh, lecture series. Uh, we'll give you another example of how, uh, uh, ICD devices can be used, uh, in a transportation service. Uh, in this case, we are going to talk about public bicycle sharing, uh, and how, uh, it is, uh, is helping, uh, uh, the rise of public bicycle sharing and in, uh, and in that way, it is helping in the, uh, sustainable, uh, development of transportation in urban areas. Uh, so when we, uh, look, when we talk about public bicycle sharing system, uh, what we want, what we primarily mean to say is that, uh, these are, uh, the, uh, bicycle sharing systems, uh, that you can use, uh, by paying a free, and you don't have to worry about owning a bicycle, or you don't have to worry about the maintenance of the bicycle. Uh, you just have to pick it up from, uh, A certain spot, uh, drop it off at another spot, which is closer to your destination in this way. Uh, you're not only using a green mode of transportation, but you are also, uh, taking up less space to travel, uh, in the urban area. And, uh, both of those. Uh, helping, uh, reducing condition as well as improving the environment. Right? So that is a, what is a public bicycle sharing system? Uh, there is a, uh, guidance document that has been developed by the ministry of housing and urban affairs government of India, uh, which tells you how to plan and implement for it. Public bicycle sharing system. Uh, so, uh, that is the major source which we have used and, uh, since it's developed by government of India. So there is a lot of applications applicability to the, uh, in scenario, uh, in this document. So, like we said, public bicycle sharing system is a high quality, uh, bicycle based public transportation system in which bicycles stored in closely spaced network, uh, of stations are made available for short-term shared use. Right? So these are, uh, the bicycle that you use, uh, can somebody else can also use, right? So it's shared news for short-term, uh, for short term, usually. Um, can you cannot rent it for, uh, more than day or two days or three days? It is usually, uh, hours, a couple of hours or 30 minutes or something like that. The operators make sure that the, uh, there is a good redistribution of the vehicles, uh, between the different stations that are there. Uh, so that, uh, it, uh, scenario should not arise that all of the stations, uh, um, out of all of the stations, only two or three stations have. A lot of bicycles, whereas the other stations have only are either empty or have no bicycles then, uh, that system is not efficient. So the operator has to ensure that there is. Good redistribution of bicycles in all of the stations, uh, and that are, uh, its devices again, that, uh, guards against theft or parking concerns. Uh, you don't have to worry about, uh, uh, uh, you, this bicycle being stolen because, uh, it is the operative concern and the operators has have installed, uh, or try to install, uh, ICT devices that guard against. Uh, theft or anything like that. So it, uh, usually, uh, in China, we are already seeing that more than 600 cities are, uh, using these public bicycle sharing systems. Uh, they, however, they had started way back, uh, uh, way back in the 1960s, uh, when, uh, uh, I believe, uh, uh, Netherlands. Yes. Uh, Amsterdam in Netherlands, uh, started what is called the white. Uh, bicycle movement, the white bicycle movement. They had a bicycle painted in white. Uh, at that point in time, it was free of charge, uh, same location for pickup and drop off. So you could not, uh, from wherever you, uh, uh, took the bicycle or, um, borrowed the bicycle, you had to drop it back off at the same location. And unlocked by, uh, however these bicycles did not have any locks, so it was prone to theft. Uh, those were kind of the first generation of, uh, bicycle sharing. Uh, after that we moved to more, uh, custom built and heavy duty bicycles with distinct designs. Maybe there was a cattle carrier, uh, for, uh, uh, your daily needs, um, um, daily grocery needs, for example, uh, now they started to be operated using, uh, uh, Going so certain amount of fee was being charged for their operations. Uh, there were, uh, parking racks that were available, uh, so that, uh, they could be tied to the parking deck or some sort of mechanism, uh, to avoid any kind of, uh, theft and vulnerable, uh, vulnerable as users. We're not registered though. So even in the second generation, uh, you nobody knew who was using these systems because, uh, the user who was trying to use it, they were not registered in any database or anything, so anybody could use it. So again, that was one thing that was not available in the second generation, uh, PBS systems, uh, then came along, uh, the third generation, uh, bicycles, which were, uh, which you might've seen a hole in many of the cities, there are docked bicycles. Uh, they're distinct with design and it's been space. A lot of advertisement, uh, was done, uh, uh, um, to popularize these, uh, bicycle systems. Uh, they had, uh, different docking stations. Uh, smart technology was used now, uh, to check in and check out. So, uh, maybe there was an app for each of these, uh, design, uh, for each of these, uh, PBS, uh, So public bicycle sharing systems in your city, and these apps allowed you to, uh, uh, pay a fee and, uh, through the app, you could just unlock the system. So there was no need to have any manual locks on them as well. And thefts worded a theft deterrent through user registration. So you actually to use the system you had to first register. Uh, on the website, I give your bank details, give your, uh, information on only then you could use the system. So, uh, theft was, uh, theft was then minimized because, uh, now that your information was already in the database, uh, and, uh, if anything had happened to this bicycle, then, uh, you would have, you would be automatically charged for it. Uh, and the fourth generation, which is the latest innovation that are. Being used are again, going back to dockless stations and automatic locking, right? Uh, so it started, the first generation did not have any parking and they were kind of dockless, uh, but to increase security and safety, we put, uh, we put in docking stations, uh, in the third generation, but now we have gone back to doctors, but with more technology right now, we have the, uh, now we have technology that allows us to. Uh, lock a bicycle remotely, uh, once the, uh, once the, uh, uh, for example, uh, the time that you have already paid for it is up, uh, we can have a technology, uh, automatically lock your bicycle. Uh, and then, so you'd not, uh, actually need a docking station, uh, to docket. Uh, you can just park it outside your home. Uh, once you are done at the evening. And, uh, uh, the, uh, based on the GPS, it's a transponder on the bicycle. Uh, the system would know that this is one bicycle at this location, which is available. Uh, so anybody going past that location, uh, can look it up on the app and say that, okay, I can pick it up from here. So. And there are the, the technology is improving day by day. And this is, uh, that is why we are trying to show you this as an example of how, uh, ICT is used in, uh, uh, improving, uh, uh, the efficiency of the system as a whole, because bicycle is a green transportation. And by encouraging green transportation, we are improving, uh, the system efficiency. Uh, so may include electric bicycles as well. So now you have these electric scooters, uh, which can, uh, be used as a. Uh, which can be used as public bicycle sharing systems. Um, these smart cards, uh, are now linked to the public are active public transport as well. So the same cards that you use for Metro, for example, maybe now used for public bicycle sharing system as well. So that gives some seamless integration between different types of public transportation modes as well. Uh, so the first step, uh, in order to understand or plan and design for a PBS system is to, uh, know what is the demand for. These PBS systems side. So if, uh, you as a, in your city want to design or develop a public bicycle sharing system, you would want to know how many people are out there in your city who would actually want to use this. Right? So for that, you have to collect, you have to collect some data. You have to, uh, a data is usually. Uh, collected, uh, by, uh, sampling a certain number of, uh, people in, in your, uh, city's population, uh, that sample, uh, to those people. You can hand out questionnaires surveys asking them, uh, Uh, where do you want to use them for how long do you want to use? If there is a system that is available public bicycle system that is available, what are the different, uh, barratry purposes for which you use this, for example, so different questions could be asked through which you will be able to gauge, uh, or estimate how much demand there is for the system. Uh, you can either do household travel surveys as well, or intercept surveys on, uh, on, uh, on streets as well. Uh, you, the next step, uh, after data collection will be to estimate the trips based on different categories. So based on different trip lens for different purpose, how many trips are will people make? So for example, the total trips will be equal to the average separate times. Yeah. Population. Right? So for example, trips for a certain category, so trips for what work related trips, for example. So work-related trips will be, uh, given by the total trips. That you would make. So in a day, maybe you make five trips a day, right? Uh, so five trips a day, times D personal trips in that category. So five trips, a day types of percentage of trips in that category, meaning, uh, in, in the work trip category, how many percent of trips are you? Are you as a society make? So if you know the percentage of trips. Uh, personally what trips that are being made. And you also know how many total number of trips that are being made. If you multiply that, that's a very simple, simple way of understanding how many trips per category you can make. So it is essential to know these things because, you know, uh, you have, uh, remember, uh, there is, uh, uh, One of the issues in a public bicycle sharing system is the redistribution of the bicycles. Right? So in the morning suddenly if everybody, uh, takes their, uh, users PBS and, uh, goes to, uh, uh, a watch to access the Metro station. So all of the cycles will now be, uh, at a, at a docking station, uh, around the Metro station. And none of the bicycles will be there in the neighborhoods. So anybody else who wants to use it in the morning, I mean, not find a bicycle there. So that's why you want to know for which trip purpose you are to use it. So the minute, you know, that there is a big demand for what purposes. So after the work time is done, you would then the, uh, you would want those, uh, uh, bicycles to be redistributed back into the, uh, all the other, uh, docking station. So that is why you want to know it. Then you want to know how many percentage of people are actually willing to shift to public bicycle sharing system for the amount of money that you're going to charge. Right? It is all well to know that, okay, there are. And number of trips at number of workers that happen and out of those, uh, uh, out of those total proportion of total trips, uh, this many trips are worked up this many trips at leisure trips. That is all well and good, but you also have to know for different amounts, uh, of money that you're going to charge, how many people are actually willing to pay for that. Right. Uh, making the system three means that, uh, That is the best way to have a free system, but it has to be self-sustained. So it should not depend on subsidy from the government, for example. So you have to always charge some amount of money. Otherwise it cannot be. Uh, self-sustainable uh, otherwise people usually cross subsidize it and bring money from some other transport modes revenues, and put it invested in public bicycle sharing system. That is another way of doing it, but let us for simplicity sake, say that you're going to charge for your PBS system. And so for different levels of charging, for example, if you have, uh, uh, 10 rupees per minute, Are 10 rupees per half an hour, uh, would, how many persons or people would be willing to use your bicycle sharing system for versus if you just charge one rupee port a half an hour. So if 10 rupees versus one rupee for half an hour, how many, what is the difference in the percentage of people that are willing to. Uh, use your system. So it, again, it, uh, after, you know, the, uh, trips based on different types of categories, you have to know how many people are willing to shift from different modes for the different types of, uh, for the different amounts of money that you able to charge. Right? Maybe a model shift, meaning, uh, they may be, uh, now taking automatic share. But I certainly priced this at a very competitive price with, to another lecture. Maybe they'll shift from an auto lecture and come to using a public bicycle sharing system. Plus the people who are normally, uh, not using, uh, any other mode, uh, are not using a bicycle or autistic shot or anything just purely, they would want to use the system for the money that you are being charging. So what is their demand as well? Right. So it doesn't always have to be shifted from some other mode. It can be, uh, latent demand, uh, that is, uh, they're in the system. And now you're provided a new mode. So people may want to come in, use that mode as well. So you would want to know how many, uh, how many such people are there based on all that you will get it demand for the entire system. Right? The total PBS demand will be then total trips in each category. Types timestamp percentage of model shift, or willingness to use now, uh, once, once you know that you can at a planning level, right now, we are trying to plan and design these things. These are not operational level details that you are getting into. Uh, you are still not, there is nothing in place for your city. So you want to plan something so planning, these are all planning, a planning level analysis that are, that we have looking at. So say for example, a new PBS operator wants to introduce a PBS scheme. In a neighborhood of population 50,000, right? So there's a neighborhood 50,000 population from the first step of the PBS demand analysis. It was seen that the average trip rate of the neighborhood was five trips per person. So in this neighborhood, every person on an average makes five trips per day, right? That is what the average trip rate the person noticed. And the following table was generated. For the purpose of the operator, it was pertinent to study the various trip categories of a trip, distance and trip costs of the neighbor neighborhood. Now generate the PBS demand of the neighborhood as per these categories. So the, the operator said that, uh, the trip categories that are, that I want, or the categories that I want to, uh, classify the data is based on trip distance and trip costs. So he, he designed three different categories for trip distance and. Three different categories for trip costs. And he Cal this was the table based on the questionnaire survey that he had designed, he found out. So what he found out was, uh, out of, uh, the 50,000 trips, uh, are, uh, out of, uh, the 50,000 residents that are out there. 64% of the trips that they make are within zero to two kilometers. 22% of the trips that they make are between two to five kilometers. 14% of the trips that they make between five to 50 trucks. So similarly, he saw that how much do they pay? Trip cost is zero to 15, 10% of the people, 10%. The trips are within 50 rupees. Uh, 75% are within a hundred rupees, whereas a, between a hundred to 200, there are only. 15% of the trips. So he has got all that data and he's also got the willingness to shift to PBS data now that, uh, they, he knows that predators are 64% of the trips are, uh, two, two, zero, two kilometers. They say that 86% of such people say that they will shift to PBS. If that if the distance is between zero to two kilometers. So once he gets all of this. How do you calculate it? So now, you know that the total trips, our average trip rate times population, the average trip rate is five, five trips per person. The population is 50. So 2000 to like 50,000 or 250,000 trips. Total trips are coming out of that neighborhood, right? If 250,000 trips are coming out of that neighborhood. And if you know that 64%. Of those trips are between zero to two kilometers. So if you just do 64%, uh, month times 250, you will get this value. Similarly, you will get all of those other values once, uh, once you know that, uh, once you know, the, uh, trips in each category and you know, how many of them are willing to shift, then all you do is you multiply the 160 with the 86%, and then you get there. PBS demand for each of these categories, right? So total PBS demand for each category. So the total trips in each category. So this in the zero to two kilometers category, the total trips are one 60 and the percentage of model shift is 86%. So it is one 60 times 86. This is as your VBS demand. So now you know that if you put in a system, a PBS system in your city, uh, the number of. Most likely, uh, the number of trips between a zero to two kilometers is going to be. 137,000 or one 37,000 trips. So that is going to be the majority of the trips that is going to happen. So you would say that, uh, that is what I had, I need to focus on. I need to focus on the very, very short trips in my neighborhood. So I need to, so then you can think about where to put in. Uh, your, uh, docking stations, uh, how to distribute, uh, your docking station locations, uh, which are the ideal locations based on the distances that are very short. Uh, anything, if you, if you go, uh, uh, more than 15 kilometers, only 1,400 people that are going to use it. So you are maybe not targeting that population at all. You're targeting majorly zero to two kilometers and a little bit of. Two to five kilometers as well. And based on cost, you're also seeing that, uh, anywhere between 50 to a hundred rupees, uh, there's a demand of 54,000 people. So even you can, uh, now 5,200 rupees, uh, for say, for example, up to five kilometers. So up to five kilometers. Uh, four, five kilometers. If you charge a hundred rupees, that means you get a wait for one kilometer, you can charge how much. And based on that, uh, you can then convert the one kilometer in one kilometer. Maybe a bicyclist can cover one kilometer in how many number of minutes. Then you can charge based on number of minutes. So you can do all your calculations for your planning level of design of your PBS system. Right? So this gives you an idea of how public bicycle sharing system is planning design. Now look at the guidance document. What it also tells you that some of the, of the different guiding elements that are there in the public affordable public bicycle sharing system, its intelligent in technology integration and redistribution system are very, very important. So we have already discussed about redistribution systems. Now let us look at the focus. Of our, uh, uh, topic, uh, its so how do, how does intelligent technology integration help your PBS systems? Right. So, uh, intelligent technology systems facilitate integration of users, stations, and terminals. In this case you have three entities that you have to integrate the user. Who's trying to use the bicycle sharing system, the stations from where he, or she will be taking out. Uh, are, uh, taking your bicycle to, and from the stations, meaning usually the origins and destinations and the terminals are actually the darkness. Now, if they're dark less, then that's one less thing that you have to, uh, worry about. But if you have particular docking stations, then you have to also. Uh, communicate the tower docking terminals have to communicate between, uh, the stations, the users, as well as the terminals as, uh, as well. Uh, so it allows for real-time data sharing. So with, uh, uh, with, uh, GPS technology with GPS transponders, now you can real-time track where the bicycles are. Uh, users are already registered, so you can, uh, you can automatically charge them if they go beyond. Uh, how much, uh, they had registered up for. So for example, when I was, when I started to use our, when I, uh, took the bicycle out, I said that, uh, I want it for 30 minutes, but, uh, while I started using it, uh, one thing came after the other. So I kept it for one hour, but now that I'm already registered. A user and the system knows about my bank information. So when I put it back after one hour, it can automatically charge me for the extra hour as well. Right. Uh, and you can do automatic check-in and check-out at the stations because, uh, you can remotely, uh, say that, okay, I'm going to. Uh, come and pick up a station, pick up a bicycle at station a at 9:30 AM. So, uh, w you just show up at the station and bicycle may be already deserved for you. Uh, and then you can just take it out from there and go on your way. Of course you have access to information. Uh, so, uh, the technologies that are used here are smart cards or smart keys. Uh, right. Uh, you don't have to have a physical key to unlock it. You just need to have an, uh, another ID code and an RFID tag, most likely to just open it or even, uh, uh, you can remotely open it through, uh, uh, unlock it through an app or something like that. Uh, uh, RFID device, uh, terminal that, uh, actually, uh, if you have a docking station that. Uh, who docks the station, uh, the docks, the bicycle. So that also has to be automatically locked and unlocked, uh, based on it, there's a card reader at the bicycle dock GPS device on the bicycle. Uh, obviously there's a control center that is monitoring all of this, uh, TMC, for example, mobile app. So these are some of the examples of how, uh, various, uh, uh, Ah, smart cards or keys looks like, uh, these are all images taken from different parts of the world, I believe. Or some are, some are Indian, some are, uh, outside India as well. Uh, so you have, uh, such cards that you can either, uh, punch in a code or you can just tap it and you can unlock, unlock the bicycle and, uh, uh, take it for use. These are integrated with your credit or debit cards, and sometimes are also integrated with. Uh, uh, for example, your public transport system in the, in the city, um, a Metro card or something can also be used here. Uh, so this is how usually you, uh, you unlock and just start using the bicycles. Uh, nowadays you are also getting, uh, RFID locks. So these are smart locks. On the bicycle, right? These are the locks on the bicycle and you just tap your RFID, a RFID tag and it unlocks, and then you can take it. So these are, this is how you don't have to have, uh, a bicycle, uh, a docking station. Uh, you can just have dockless stations, but have smart locks on the bicycles. Uh, the other place or the other place where you have to integrate is the terminal itself. Uh, so allows, uh, uh, to check-in and check-out allows check-in and check-out of bicycles. Uh, right. Uh, so, uh, one has to know, uh, if I'm a user, I have to know that this terminal has. Two or three bicycles available for me only then I would walk towards it or go towards it other than I would go towards the other direction where the other terminals have, uh, bicycles available. So, uh, these terminals also have to be smart. Uh, they have to, uh, to have some display, uh, information such as a map, uh, station map, or user charges of, uh, analysis. So for advertisement. So you must have encountered, uh, many of these. Uh, around, for example, Metro stations are around, uh, certain transportation hubs. Uh, also large malls nowadays are, uh, having, uh, having these terminals, uh, and now the latest, uh, the latest generation bikes also have. Uh, GPS tags associated with them, uh, that allows for real-time monitoring this, this really helps in reducing theft as well. Uh, so, uh, when at night maybe, uh, it's a dockless system. Uh, so you have, uh, you have taken the by bike from the Metro station to your house. Uh, but you have just parked it outside your house. Now through the GPS transponder, everybody knows where it is. So if, uh, when it comes to redistribution, Uh, then tomorrow, uh, then the operator of carrier can come in and collect the bike from a front of your house. Uh, of course there will be a TMC, uh, um, or a traffic management center or in this case, a public bicycle sharing system management center, uh, which allows, which does all the data crunching and data analysis, uh, behind the scenes. Uh, this especially, uh, is needed because it helps in, uh, redistribution of the bicycles. It can see, uh, using the GPS tags where most of the bicycles currently are, and maybe, uh, based on the time of the day, it has to, uh, take a certain call that these bicycles have to be at another location. So then. They can, uh, uh, easily, uh, uh, instruct the, uh, instruct the operators to move it to a different location, uh, in the era of, uh, uh, mobile apps, uh, that can be easily used to the new membership, find information regarding number of bicycles available in real time at any station. So this remotely, you can start planning for your, uh, PBS trip as well. Uh, redistribution, as you see, this is a major operating costs that goes into, uh, any kind of PBS network, uh, and kind of PBS system because, uh, uh, this requires manual shifting of your bicycles from different terminals, uh, or maybe one terminal to different terminals, um, because, uh, otherwise, uh, there will be a scarcity of bicycles at some terminals, and this may lead to, uh, an inefficient system.