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Module 1: Intelligent Transportation Systems

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So now let us, uh, uh, in this lecture, give you an understanding of the basic ideas architecture. So what do we mean by architecture? We're going to show you, uh, uh, what are the different structural elements, uh, in the architecture, and also show you some relevant. Case studies of, uh, certain service packages, uh, have different, uh, its, uh, systems that are deployed in Indian cities. So when we talk about, uh, its architecture, uh, what we mean, uh, is basically, uh, the center two blocks, uh, in this, uh, picture, right? Uh, so one is the, uh, physical architecture, uh, whereas the other is D. Logical architecture. Uh, so, uh, just as in the civil engineering and. Uh, architectural field, if you may call it, uh, we have, uh, we have to, uh, basically draw a design, uh, and show what are all the components in the design, similarly in the, uh, uh, it world, you also have to have a digital architecture of the system, right? You have to understand, uh, what are all the hardware components that are involved in the design of the system? Uh, what are all the communication devices that are needed in order for data to flow between. Uh, the different systems and subsystems, so that in all, uh, in a combination of this entire, uh, uh, uh, physical systems, uh, uh, communication systems, subsystems, all of these put together is the ideas architecture. Uh, so when we talk about, uh, physical architecture, we will show you, uh, the different, uh, architectural flows, the subsystems. And the different equipment packages that are involved, uh, in developing, uh, each of the systems. Whereas when we're talking about logical architecture, uh, you will be, uh, on, uh, understanding about the architecture from the point of view of the different processes and different data flows. Uh, it is easier to understand the concept while looking at the physical architecture than the logical architecture. Uh, but still you have to understand both of them. To kind of get an idea about the ideas architecture as a whole. So when you look at the, uh, architecture structure, the its architecture, uh, architecture structure, you will see that it consists of four different layers, right? The, and these are in order from top to bottom or bottom to top, the top most layer is what is called the enterprise view. The next one is the functional view. Next one is the physical view and the final layer is the communication view. Right? You can, it, it is in order. So you have to look at it in that hierarchy. So what it essentially tells you is that all these four layers together, uh, have two on each of the system or each of the its, uh, um, Uh, systems that you deploy in your city has to have all of these four different layers. The top layer is the enter enterprise view, where you have to define all the roles and the relationships and the needs of that system. That has to be defined that the functional view, you have to outline all the processes, uh, all the data flows and all its requirements. Uh, it has to be, uh, uh, outlined in the functional view. Finally. Uh, not finally, but in the physical view, you have to have the actual objects, uh, physical objects, as well as functional objects that are needed in order for all the processes to take care of, uh, and all the, uh, needs to be satisfied, for example. So each of these views. Have to satisfy the, uh, layer on top of it. Right? So the communication view, that is why is the basis is the basis for, uh, the IPS architecture, uh, the stronger and the more detailed the communication, uh, network is, or the communication layer is the better is your its system, right? If it is, uh, uh, whatever it is, two way communication, one way communication. Is it through wired communication, wireless, communication, whatever, maybe that is dependent upon you, uh, as a system integrator, how do you design your system, but are the communications are the base layer, which upon which everything builds up to the communication layer, communication, uh, view has to satisfy all, all the three views on top of it. Whereas the physical view has to satisfy the functional view. A functional view as well as the enterprise view. Whereas the functional view has to only satisfy the enterprise view. So it builds on layer after layer. And all of this intern is then associated with different types of service packages. Right? These service packages are nothing but, uh, uh, various its interventions that are bundled together. In order for you to be used for specific firm at specific locations, for specific functions and so on and so forth rather than, uh, rather than you getting, uh, a switchboard and a, and a wire, uh, and a three-page plug and so on and so forth, uh, it is better that you always get all of these assembled together in, uh, for example, in a four in the form of her, uh, extension. Quarter an extension, um, uh, extension wire, right? So this extension cord or this extension wire, if you extrapolate it to, uh, its system. So that is what is called a service package. So you get everything built in, uh, for a certain type of a functionality for a certain type of use. And each of those service packages, again, have, uh, the enterprise view, they have some sort of functional view physical view, as well as communication and all of these service packages. And each of these layers are again, tight intertwined with security systems, right? Everything has to be secure the device. If the communications are not secure, if your, uh, top, uh, roles and responsibilities are compromised and are not secure, then your idea systems will not function. So its system architecture and its architecture should have four different layers. Enterprise view, functional view, physical view and communication view. Each of those views are associated with certain number of, uh, any single or multiple service packages. And in turn these service packages and these four, uh, views are connected to some sort of her security system. So that in a nutshell in overview is what an ITSP architecture looks like. Okay. So now if you go into each of these views, uh, one by one. So if we start from the top and look at the enterprise view, so the enterprise view defines the needs of the system, right? You have to define why do you need a certain system to be put in place? Otherwise, if there is no strong need for it, then most likely it is not going to help you in fulfilling what you're trying to achieve. Right. So it has to outline what are the needs. Who are the stakeholders who are the people that will be, for example, receiving information who will be giving information, uh, who will be actually using this information for certain purposes. So all the stakeholders should be involved. Andrew would we identified in the enterprise view each of the stakeholders roles and the relationship between each of the stakeholders should be clearly outlined. So that is the basic functionality of this enterprise view. Uh, and you can go. That is what is, uh, shown here in each of these arrows. So for example, uh, let us say that, uh, you want to, uh, you want to, uh, develop, um, uh, maintenance, uh, system, right? Say you are to develop a maintenance, uh, uh, system, uh, which will automatically tell you about, uh, when your roadway, uh, requires. Some maintenance. So, uh, what you want to identify first is you want to know, uh, who is, uh, what is the systems, uh, maintenance agreement that is currently in place. So, uh, for example, uh, at what IRA value, what are you going to do any maintenance at? What is the writing level, uh, for which after which, uh, you are going to do. Uh, routine maintenance and so on and so forth. So you have to first understand what is the system maintenance agreement, who is the basic vehicle maintenance. So who is going to do all this? The traffic management, uh, centered maintenance. So you have, uh, you have to identify the person. Uh, for example, somebody at the TMC will, uh, have to be identified as the person who is in charge of maintenance and the traffic management center owner. Uh, in itself is going to be the person who's going to be responsible for this. So, uh, at the TMC level, uh, you have to have somebody who is going to monitor each and every roadway segment, uh, monitor certain, uh, the existing, uh, maintenance agreements and the existing conditions of the roadways. And this TMC owner has to then, uh, decide, uh, as to. Uh, when and at what locations maintenance agreements have to be, or maintenance has to be carried out. So such such other rules and responsibilities that has to be, uh, assigned at this enterprise level. So when we see our roles and responsibilities, this is what we actually mean. So, uh, such kind of roles and responsibilities can not only be assigned during the maintenance stage. It can be also assigned during the development stage. During the installation stage and during the operations did as well. I want to apply an ITSC system for any one of these four stages. Uh, and you want to know what should constitute the enterprise view. So this is an example of what should constitute the enterprise view. So this is just the first view that we are talking about. And this example gives you the enterprise view for. Any one of the four stages of her road development project. Right? So now if we move into the next view, which is the functional view, so what the functional view tells you is three basic things. It tells you about the requirements, right? What are needed, see what is required in order to carry out the function that you want to carry out. Should have, uh, outlined well-defined processes in order to meet those requirements, the processes should be well-defined. And also it should tell you about the data flows. How should data, where should data flow from, uh, between the systems subsystems? Uh, should we be unidirectional bi-directional so on and so forth, right? So the functional needs to satisfy the functional requirements to satisfy the need. Processes of functional activity that is required to support the service package needs with performs actions. And finally data flows flowing between processes are between a process and an external object in the functional view. So data flows are aggregated together to form high-level information flows in the physical. So you can, the physical view, you can aggregate the data, uh, flows, uh, Sure for better understanding, right. I told you critical view is, uh, easier for, to understand rather than the logical view, but, uh, you're to understand all of this. So let us again see an example of what do we mean when we, uh, when we, uh, tell you about the functional views. So for example, uh, let us say that, uh, at the development, uh, development stage, Uh, the roles and responsibilities would be, uh, roadway, basic surveillance and, uh, roadway, passive monitoring. So for these two types of, uh, um, uh, uh, uh, um, roles and responsibilities at the development stage, what kind of functional objects would you need? So when you say functional objects, so maybe you need a roadway, basic surveillance object. So you have to have sensor data that is going to tell you what is the volume of traffic that is going on a road. So for example, so you will need actually those different kinds of sensors, right? It is very easy to say that you will need the sensors, but the sensors should not only count maybe the number of vehicles that are moving. But also maybe they have to classify the vehicles into different types. Right? Uh, trucks, buses, cars, two wheelers. In case of India, we have so many different types of vehicles moving. So can they classify between different kinds of vehicles? So, uh, because, uh, uh, for example, uh, in the development stage, you want to know whether there'll be a lot of heavy traffic on this road, whether there'll be light traffic, uh, whether there'll be goods, vehicle moving. A high proportion of goods vehicle moving or not. So all of this has to be understood. So, uh, for example, functional objects in a functional object card, a basic surveillance, maybe you have to have sensor data. Maybe you have to have. Control dynamic lanes. Uh, maybe there are specific lanes for heavy vehicles, like, uh, some of the roads in India, we are being envisioned as truck only lanes. So maybe there'll be lanes only, which on, along with there'll be only trucks moving and nothing else. So can we have some kind of monitoring system that can, that can happen? So these are all the functional objects. So these are all the functional objects again. Uh, for example, uh, you can have at the TMC level, now this is a D. Roadway level, right? So you, similarly, you can have functional objects at the TMC level. So the TMC level, uh, at the MC level, meaning the, uh, traffic management center level, you want to update the data from all these static sources that you're getting. So you may be getting, uh, data from a hundred different, uh, pavement section locations. So then at the TMC level, you have to update that every 24 hours maybe. Uh, or whatever the protocol is, however good your communication systems are once you update it, your what's your updated. You have to retrieve all the data. You have to make sense. I got to make your process all the data to, uh, analyze the data. And everything happens at the DMC basic surveys. So you understand everything is interconnected with each other. Uh, all the four views are interconnected with each other. Uh, unless each of the views are performing their functions, roles and responsibilities are the entire its, uh, system will not be functioning very smoothly. So you understand what is at the enterprise view? You understand? What is that the functional view. Now, if you move on to the next view, which is the physical view at this, at this view, you would be able to, uh, identify the actual physical objects. That are needed in the system in order to carry out all the functionalities and the, uh, in order to deliver all the, um, uh, uh, roles, responsibilities, uh, that are outlined in the enterprise view. You, you will then have to identify also what are the functional objects? What is the difference between physical objects and functional objects? And then of course, uh, the data flows that you have identified in the previous functional view. Now you have to identify the information flows. So in the previous few, maybe you have identified the data will flow from point a to point B and not from point B back to point a. So now in this view, you have to identify what information in that data. A floor should happen, right? Should a, there'll be information about, for example, uh, the type of vehicle that year or the registration plate number, the weight, the age, all of that information, or does it have to be only a vehicle category type truck? That is the only information that is flowing. So that is what is the difference between data flow and information flow? Right? Data is data flows. Okay. Data will flow from. Uh, uh, the vehicle to the, uh, roadside, uh, instrument and not from the road side, uh, just went back to the data. So that is kind of a bi-directional or unidirectional data flow. But as what information flows is, what is understood in there, physical view. So physical objects, personal place, or things that participate in ideas, uh, like you said, it can be a center, it can be a center, so it can be actually a TMC. The TMC is a physical. Uh, object rate. It can be some, anything in the field. It can be the traveler themselves can be the vehicle itself. So there are different at least five different classes of physical objects, uh, building blocks of physical objects of the physical view. Functional. Uh, object, uh, group similar processes are of a particular physical object together into an implementable package, right? So, uh, all these physical objects, when they are grouped together into an implementable package that is called a functional view. So, uh, you will have different, smaller, smaller, physical objects. They have to be grouped together into a functional view so that they are, they offer up the proper function at that implementable. And then of course, information has to be exchanged between physical objects of the physical view and information flows are related to entity relationships in the enterprise view and are fully detailed in that communication view, which is coming up next. So if you look at an example of an infrastructure based surveillance, uh, traffic surveillance system, so what are all the different types of physical in the physical view? What are all. Uh, the different types of objects that you can see, you can see functional objects, you can see physical objects and also you can see information, information flows. So first, if you look at the physical objects for a traffic surveillance system, so you have to have some kind of a roadway equipment, which is in the field and this description is and equipment distributed on. And along the roadway that monitors and controls traffic of the roadway. So this is, this is an example of what are different types, so physical objects. So this is its roadway equipment. So it may be, uh, uh, CFR, uh, counting, counting station. It may be, uh, uh, as simple as a camera, uh, traffic, uh, traffic surveillance, Canada, something, a physical object in there. So then if you. If you combine these different kinds of physical objects into a functional object. So what the functional object does is it brings you up to work TMC level again. Now it says it will add the T at the basic TMC level surveillance. It will remotely monitor and controls traffic, sensor systems, and surveillance. Now it can look at all different types of roadway, equipments that are there and can. Performer function. So now it can look at different types of, uh, uh, camera systems that are out there. And the function that it can perform is it can either, uh, increase the green time. For example, at traffic signals reduce, uh, uh, uh, or reduce the red, all red phase and so on and so forth. So the basic thing to understand here is different physical objects, uh, constitute, huh? Functional object. And this functional, the basic premise of this functional object is that it is implementable. It is collection of physical objects that are implementable is essentially what is called a functional object. And then of course, uh, information flows. So passive vehicle monitoring data. If it's only passive data that has been collected and timestamped identifiers that identify the vehicle have passed through a detection zone. So that is the only information that you're collecting for example, is the timestamps at which all of these vehicles are passing through that zone. So that is all the information flow that you need for your basic traffic surveillance system. So that is an example of the, uh, physical objects or the physical view, uh, what you can see or what you can develop in a physical view of her system. And the final and the, uh, most, uh, essential, uh, view is the communication view that tells you all the standards that are required, uh, for the different hardware and software systems involved, uh, in the ITSC system, uh, in the its, uh, uh, uh, uh, that you're trying to implement in the field, all the different types of user profiles. Uh, and all the solutions are the packet solutions that you're trying to provide right now. Uh, so in order to, uh, simplify the development of solutions are catty organized standards into groups called profiles, which defines the protocols necessary to define how information is transferred between the collaborate. So the communications layer is, uh, is, uh, very, uh, for, for civil engineers, for transportation engineers. It's a very. Difficult thing to understand at the first go. But once you put your, uh, once you look at the details of it, uh, and to really try to understand, uh, what type of, uh, or standards of communication system. Do you want to essentially use that will really help you build your system. Maybe you need, uh, for your system. You need data only once a day, once a day, data is good enough for you. So you only invest in that type of communication system. Uh, whereas you need data every second. So, what are the, you need to invest in a different type of a communication system that will give you data every second. So the cost involved in building the system also changes based on your communication protocol that you want from your system, uh, that is, uh, in place, or that is something that wish to build. So all of these four things, uh, all of these four views, all of these things can also be seen in the form of different subsystems. Uh, if you want to see it in that, uh, in that manner, the subsystems, again, like we said, uh, consists of vehicles, centers, uh, equipment in the field, some support systems, and obviously the users, other traveler devices, uh, that are now available to you. So, so again, you would like, uh, if, if this is visible to you, if you are talking about the vehicles, you have your onboard equipment, emergency onboard equipment.Uh, whereas if you're talking about, uh, traveler devices, you have your personal information device, your mobile phones or anything else, uh, field equipment, you can have, uh, roadside equipment, parking management systems, uh, all of those that are deployed in the field centers, we've already told you about, uh, TMCs. You can have EMEA emission management centers. You can have freight distribution and logistics centers. Uh, transit management centers happens in. Uh, different, uh, cities that have large public transportation systems. And obviously you need some support, uh, system for these centers. For example, you need your maps to be updated. For example, maybe, uh, archive data has to be provided to you. And so these centers have to be also supported by some other forms of data. And this is how you can look at the different subsystems, uh, in the ideas architecture. Uh, this is an older view of the same thing that we are trying to talk about here, uh, for the shows you that, uh, what different types of communications can be used between these systems and subsystems, for example, between the vehicles and the field, uh, what different types of communications can be used. Uh, well fixed, uh, fixed point to fixed point communications can be used between the centers and the, um, and the field. Uh, similarly for the travelers. Now, the travelers, uh, can get, uh, uh, information not only from. Uh, the vehicles, but also from the centers themselves, right? The centers can directly send in information to the users via a variable message signs, or even through, if you do your radio in your, uh, uh, FM radio in your car. To a certain frequency, you can get direct traffic updates as well. So those are all coming from the centers. So this is a overall view of how the its architecture looks like. What are the different elements involved? What are the data flows, uh, and the communication channels between each of these, uh, systems and, uh, kind of gives you an overarching idea about what we are dealing with. When we talk about its in. Uh, or ICT in transportation, uh, which is otherwise called intelligent transportation systems. Uh, now, uh, this, uh, IDs has been there, fought about, uh, uh, for about, uh, three decades. Now, I believe, uh, it started way back in the early nineties, uh, in, uh, uh, in the United States. Uh, and then it moved to, uh, some of the other developed countries. So there are, there are several, uh, packages that have been already developed. So when we call it a package, they are ready to use implementable, uh, implementable packages that you can, uh, utilize them, uh, for, uh, utilize and train them for your own cities. So when we were talking about, uh, different packages, service packages, first of them, uh, one of them is the advanced traffic management system. So ATM is, uh, for example, electronic toll collection. There are 24 different packages you have listed to here, like Tronic toll collection package is already available. So there are different, uh, different custom of the shelves, uh, system, uh, systems available. You can just implement it in your, uh, in your, uh, toll systems. There's advanced public transportation system packages, nine of them available. Uh, for example, there may be transit fare collection management systems. How. How can you, uh, electronically collect and manage your affairs, uh, that you receive from, uh, the users, uh, signal priority. If your transit requires signal at, uh, if your transit requires priority at signalized intersections, how do you do that? So all, all of these, uh, service packages are already well-defined, uh, and are in the, uh, uh, its architecture that has been developed. Uh, by the S IOT. So you, uh, any of your, uh, cities could, uh, adopt or adapt that to your local conditions and start building your own package. Similarly, you can look at, uh, data management packages, commercial vehicle, operation packages, public safety packages, advanced vehicle control and safety systems, travel information packages, which is becoming more and more interesting with the ride sharing. Uh, because taking over, uh, in many of our cities and also sustainable travel packages, such as, uh, high occupancy vehicles or higher Penske toll land management. And how do you, uh, reduce condition on the road by the use of HOV or hot lanes? So there are different service packages that are used. Uh, this is again, uh, our overview or a view, a physical view of the, uh, eh, Our system, which is the connected vehicle traffic signal system. So if you ha, if you are moving towards connected vehicles, right? Connected vehicles, meaning vehicle to vehicle informer information is being passed and you can almost drive, uh, without a driver, a driver less. So how should a traffic signal in that case work? Right. So in the traffic signal, otherwise, uh, all these cars have drivers who will break when you see the traffic signal red. But now that the drivers are not driving. Uh, and the vehicles are communicating amongst each other and to the traffic signal system. So in order for that system to be developed, how, what all should you have in your, uh, IDs system? So this gives you an idea and these are all standardized so that, uh, standardized colors are used so that it is easy for you to understand. Which is which, which functions should happen at the center level, which should happen at the field level, which should happen at the vehicle level and which should happen at the, uh, traveler level at the user level. So all of these things, uh, similarly, you will see that, uh, there are, uh, data flow arrows that are developed, uh, all of these have certain meanings associated with it. Which I'm sure if you look into the reference packages, you will understand, uh, pretty well. Uh, some, some are unidirectional, uh, in one way, some are green, uh, uh, unidirectional the other way. Uh, some are black. Whereas some are, bi-directional both, uh, up and down. So just go through the reference materials. Uh, this is, uh, I understand this is too much, might be too overwhelming for a civil engineer or urban planner to, uh, understand and start, uh, developing, uh, jumping into this entire ideas thing. Uh, but, uh, take it easy, uh, read as much as you understand, try to, uh, try to take it slow, but. Uh, if you really try to understand this, this will help you a lot in the future when you are actually, you can then graduate, uh, from, from being only a civil engineer, dealing with transport, uh, transportation systems, rather than a transportation system expert, who knows both civil engineering transportation, as well as the it component as well. Right. So, uh, uh, take it easy. Go slow, but do not lose focus, not think that this is not civil engineering and so we should not treat the setup. Okay. So let us look at some of the case studies in the Indian, Indian cities that have implemented its, uh, so for example, the indoor, uh, indoor, uh, bus rapid transit system has, uh, an idea system, uh, replied, which is called the advanced vehicle location system. So th the system generated all reports such as. Unscheduled stoppages. Right? So the BRTs, the bus is supposed to stop only at certain, uh, specific locations. Bus stops are at signalized intersections. So if the bus makes unscheduled stoppages, uh, this system can, uh, able to detect that deviation from route. It should move on a specific route. So if it deviates from the route, the system should has the capacity to. Uh, captured that. And then the driver is asked, what was the reason? Uh, again, overspeeding the system knows, uh, what is the posted speed limit on the different routes, uh, on the different roads. So if, uh, and the system also, uh, Yeah, I can read the, uh, onboard equipment on the bus so it can correlate and, uh, understand why the, uh, when was the bus overspeeding. Uh, and then the, again, the driver would be questioned as to why there was, or speeding, introduced a, it introduced two specific advancements. The schedule adherence report and the passenger information system as well. So it didn't, uh, enhance the system. So that is what I was telling, uh, that you have to take these service packages that have been developed in other cities, but how to tailor it tailor, make it towards your own city and maybe also enhance it so that you can, uh, actually. Uh, customize it for your own needs. Uh, so what they did was the PIs display the customer service center, which allowed passengers to acquire information on the expected that I will at times.