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Module 1: Intelligent Transportation Systems

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Introduction to Intelligent Transportation Systems

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In the course of this week, Is, uh, how is, uh, what is intelligent transportation systems? Uh, what are its benefits? Uh, how is it used, uh, in case of transportation specifically, and look into some of the, uh, concepts, uh, that are used, uh, that we often use, but we often do not realize that this is, uh, the use of, uh, information, communication, technology, and transportation, specifically in this lecture, we'll be looking at a remote sensing and Geographic information systems, which is G I S so what is IDs? How do we define IDs? Right? Uh, there are not any specific definitions, but, uh, different varying definitions that are out there. Uh, one, uh, is called as, uh, one is known as people using technology. Uh, let me get this correct people using technology. Uh, in transportation to save lives, time and money. So, uh, essentially that is the main concept of, uh, the introduction of, uh, ICT, uh, in transportation, which is to increase safety and efficiency of the road transportation systems. So improving safety, uh, improving efficiency of the road, transportation systems was one of the main.Aim or goals are of the introduction of, uh, various ideas. Uh, devices are various ideas, strategies in transportation. Uh, if you look at it from a broader perspective, What was happening was, uh, we were not being able to meet the demands of the growing, uh, urban transportation demands of the citizens by just providing, uh, more and more facilities. Right. So by increasing supply, we were not, uh, being able to meet the demand as such, uh, what was, uh, noticed was that, uh, maybe. By, uh, introducing different, uh, uh, ICT or information communication technologies into transportation, we will be able to achieve greater capacity or greater efficiency of the existing transportation system. So rather than increasing the supply, uh, what ICT does is it increases the efficiency of the existing supply. So by doing so, if you increase the efficiency, we, you may be able to increase the capacity. Uh, of the existing supply and hence, uh, you may not need, uh, to, uh, provide more and more roads or increase the suppliers such. So ICT, if you look at the broader perspective, that was the main aim of introducing, uh, ICT into transportation. The four concepts that are central to its, uh, ideas are information distribution on time. So in today's day and age, you want to know. Uh, about your transportation network when you want to know about it. Right? I, there is, it is not good, uh, that, uh, if you want to travel now, you have to, uh, wait for the information on the road. Uh, so that you will have to make a decision. You want to have that information right now because you are traveling today. You are not traveling tomorrow, or you're not traveling the after tomorrow. So you need on time traveler, uh, on time traffic information. And for example, uh, information benefits, a user saw this again, works from the point of view of users. How can this information be beneficial to the users? Uh, it is one thing having information. Uh, with the agencies, it is the other thing, uh, passing on that information to the users so that they can make a sense of it. Right. So how do you pass on the information to the users, uh, through various devices now that you have, uh, from your mobile phone to your, uh, internet, to whatever devices that you use, uh, how do you pass on the information to the users effective nationally, have a unified. Framework. Right. So when you move from one city to the other city, you should be able to ha you should be able to access the same system, just like how you did in your home state or home city. Right? So there is some national standards associated, some basic national standards associated with these ideas systems. And it is of course, interdisciplinary in nature and hence requires, uh, Team effort. Right? So we are civil engineers who usually, uh, specialize in transportation. We don't, uh, usually take, uh, courses, uh, in, um, electronics or in, um, computer science, unless, or until we have a interest in it, or maybe we have taken one course as an elective, but if you want to, uh, develop an, uh, career in, uh, intelligent transportation systems, Then you have to have this interdisciplinary team or at least have interdisciplinary knowledge. So you have to have a ideas person, uh, or a computer science person on your team. Similarly, the computer science person on your team also has to have some understanding of what is transportation and what are the basics of transportation so that both of you can work in unison. So this is a very exciting new field in which transportation has ventured into over the last. Uh, two to three decades, uh, and we are going to give you some more information throughout the week about the different systems that are currently in place in India, as well as worldwide, where different IPS strategies are being used effectively. Uh, so when we look at, uh, its as a whole, uh, how, how does, how does ICT, uh, relate to its right when we talk about I information, communication technology and its. What are we essentially talking about? This is the latest thing that you might be hearing all the time, right? Connected vehicles, uh, vehicles that can drive by themselves. How is all that possible? Right. However, uh, you have, you might have already been introduced to smart infrastructure or even to ride sharing, right? So all the, uh, all our bird type services that are using. Different ICT, uh, devices to match, uh, the ride that you need. Right? How's all that happening that is all happening. Uh, uh, because, uh, uh, a driver now, uh, knows that, uh, you want a ride, you are, uh, asking for a ride and all the communication is happening, uh, through the different, uh, software platforms and hardware platforms that are available. Right? So all of this has to be integrated. We as a civil engineer, as a transportation engineer, uh, rarely think about all of these things, but we know that ride sharing has an impact on the transportation network. Now that is the whole point of you to understand at least have a basic understanding of how it works so that you can then impact our mission. Sure. It's impact on the transportation network. If you don't have an idea of how it has worked, then you will never be able to. Uh, keep pace with the, uh, growing impact of, uh, ICT on transportation, right? So you have to understand how, uh, ICT and its interact, uh, before you get into autonomous vehicles and connected vehicles, we will tell you what that is. Uh, you also may or may have heard about big data analytics, uh, which allows you to now, uh, measure, uh, speed, for example, using, uh, information from your. Uh, mobile phones, right? Uh, so your mobile phone is at one instant is at this location and the other instant is at another location. Uh, using that distance and time, uh, information you can, one can predict what is the average speed on a travel corridor, for example? So all this are various ICT platforms and ICD devices are helping transportation, uh, improve the efficiency of it. System of it's network, right? So it captures data in a very, uh, innovative, uh, framework. It manages, uh, manages the data that comes in because big data usually means large volumes of data. That is what big usually means. Uh, uh, we are usually, uh, we usually deal with experimental data or, um, say perception, data, which is. Uh, in very smaller volumes. Right. But, uh, when we talk about big data, it is data that is, uh, created every second. Like, uh, so a huge volumes of data is generated. How do you see through, uh, all of that data? How do you make sense of all of that data? Uh, that is what, uh, data capture and management. Uh, refers to, uh, at the end of the day, it has to improve safety and enhance, uh, enhance mobility and then safety and mobility of, for the users and also has to reduce the environmental impact. So ICT is helping in at least the, at least these three broad, different ways of improving the transportation network. So when we talk about, uh, some of the services that you might have, have already seen, but never really thought about it from the transportation point of view, you might have already almost, uh, always thought about it from a very, uh, technology savvy point of view. But all of these technologies are essentially, uh, helping improve, uh, the transportation network. So when we talk about automatic vehicle monitoring, right? Your, uh, your car in itself has nowadays all the modern car has so many gadgets within it. That it may be a, that it is a, a mini computer in itself. Right? So whenever you need, your fuel is going down, you have a fuel indicator, uh, when you want to turn right, uh, you have a right turn left turn indicator. When a vehicle is maybe coming. Uh, too close to your vehicle. There is a sensor that tells you that you are swaying too much. So there are so many gadgets that are associated, uh, with your, uh, inside your vehicle that tells you about different, uh, controls, uh, that tells you about where your vehicle is as well. Right? So, uh, in order to improve the safety or. Post accident, uh, as a post accident measure, uh, there is, uh, you might have heard of a black box on an aircraft, right? There are similar devices now on cars, uh, which can communicate directly with the hospital or with the ambulance, uh, after you have, uh, been in that crash. Right? So once you have been an accident or a crash, uh, this device automatically sends a message, uh, to the closest, uh, hospital or the ambulance. So that. Uh, uh, care can arrive at a very, um, uh, care can arrive quickly rather than, uh, wait for somebody to call in, uh, about the accident, uh, or you yourself reporting the accident, uh, this device in the car automatically, uh, can do so. So that is something called automatical vehicle monitoring it. Also, other than that, it also does routine, um, uh, routine, uh, work such as. Uh, it can indicate that the tire pressure is low. It can indicate that, uh, your maintenance is due and so on and so forth. Right. It can do all kinds of things. Then there are traveler information displays. Uh, you might stuff. Uh, now you'd have such kind of screens in your mobile phones, right? This allows you. If you, especially, this allows you to navigate through newer areas when you are traveling or when you are. I in a tourist destination, this helps you a whole lot, that this provides you information about the city, about the various transportation modes available in the city. And it makes your journey seamless, right? Makes your journey very easy, very smooth. Uh, it provides you information for example, about, uh, uh, about maybe various bus stops when the next bus is arriving. That may be information displayed on the bus as well as the, what is the next stop. All right. If you are on a Metro nowadays, uh, I, every Metro has. Uh, automated, uh, display on there, uh, in the inside their vehicles as well. Uh, the next thing that, uh, you would have encountered if you have traveled on, uh, any of the metros is electronic fare collection, right? Uh, so electronic, what is electronic fare collection? You have, you have a, what is called a smart card, right? So smart card has a unique ID associated with it. So you use that unique ID to link it to either your bank account, your credit card or whatever it is. And every time you, uh, uh, get on a bus, get on a, um, Metro, you just swipe the card and you make payments, right? All of this. It's helping the helping improve the efficiency of the system. Right? So now, uh, maybe there were, if it was manual ticket count, uh, manual ticket counters from where you receive tickets that maybe the manual, uh, ticketing counter would have been able to process, um, 10 people every minute. Uh, but now, uh, with the electronic, uh, ticket counter in or electronic turnstiles that you have in your Metro systems every minute, maybe. It is able to process 20, 25 people. So you see the efficiency of the system gets improved, uh, many fold, and that is one of the primary benefits of ideas. The next, uh, the next, uh, uh, main service that, uh, ideas provides is communications. Now communications is, is very, very, uh, vital when it comes to, uh, intelligent transportation systems. Communication, maybe between the vehicle systems from vehicle to the control center, from vehicle to the infrastructure or the stop shelter from Baker to that traffic signal, this is how a vehicle, uh, um, uh, how is it, uh, getting possible that, um, uh, there can be driverless vehicles, right? Unless. Something is being communicated from the vehicle to the next vehicle or from the vehicle to the infrastructure that is either above head or along the side of the road, unless this communication is there, unless there is two way communication. So these communications always have to be two way communication only when there is two way communication between, uh, between systems. That that is when, uh, such kind of, uh, driverless cars or whatever you would think about is possible. Now you have, uh, automated signals in many of your, uh, cities in the urban areas in India, right? So what are they doing? Usually they are detecting cars. It's. One way detection of cards, right? So a, it detects cars at a signal. And when the cues get longer and longer, it's automatically turns them into green so that they can be released. So now that is a two way detection. Uh, one way detection from the cyst are off the cars. From the infrastructure, but there can be the other way detection could be, for example, uh, ambulances have that power to change the, uh, red to green, wherever the ambulances arriving at the, uh, traffic signal. Right? So at that time, there is a two way communication. Now, the SIG, and now the ambulance is also communicating to the signal saying that, although you are red, please now. Start to green as I have to cross. So that is two way communication. So how does all this communication happen? Right? All of this is usually taught in electronics and electrical engineering, but, uh, uh, with the advent of intelligent transportation systems, uh, many, uh, transportation engineers who are interested in this field, uh, are getting more and more, uh, knowledge of such systems. So when you, when it comes to data collection techniques, uh, we have to, uh, we have to realize that, uh, manual data collection is, uh, is not only, uh, uh, too expensive, but also time consuming and also gives us a very small sample size, uh, for, with which to work with. So we have to use modern technologies. We have to use, uh, newer gadgets, newer information, uh, ICT methods. To collect transportation related data. So there are three types of data collection that its allows you to do. One is site based data collection, which is traffic data measured using sensors that are located on the road side. So, you know, uh, uh, initially what used to happen, how a car used to be detected was through all the loops. Inductive loops that were present, uh, inside, uh, are embedded in the pavement. Whereas the newer ways are to, uh, have either a video image processing or through leader, a leader surveys, or even through a ultrasonic and acoustic sensors, you can now, uh, measure, or you can just count vehicles and classify vehicles in a traffic stream. Right? So this will, this gives you a for example, this data can be used to develop a DT, right? You want to develop, you want to know the annual average daily traffic. Uh, on your road, which you used to, uh, have a permanent, uh, counter station on a highway or on an expressway. Uh, and, uh, this kind of, uh, pneumatic tube counters, pneumatic tube counters are even older. Uh, these are induction. Uh, these are inductive loops that are embedded into the, uh, pavement. Uh, they were used to continuously count vehicles, but now, uh, you can move to newer ways of, uh, data collection such as, uh, We do image processing. For example, the second type is a well traditionally, which was known as the floating car technique to calculate the speed of a vehicle. Whereas now you can use cellular data to measure the travel timer, speed of vehicles along along streets, highways, or motorways. Right. So using, uh, how do you use, uh, cellular data to, uh, measure speed? It is your. Uh, good old geometry, which is known as triangulation. So the network data is measured and analyzed with the help of pattern matching in an anonymous farmer. The retail, we convert it into traffic flow information. Now with its, or with a lot of big data, anonymously is one major, major point, right? Nobody wants to give out information, uh, with that personal data, uh, embedded in it. Right. So when we are, uh, you saying that we would, uh, uh, give you smart cards and that would allow you to travel seamlessly on Metro and bus services. We also want to assure that your smart card information will not be, uh, uh, we will not be able to trace back your smart card to you. So we will, we'll have to completely anonymize the data from your personal identity. For example, you might be linking it to your bank account, right? Then your bank account will have your pan pan number. So you can one, if one wants to he, or she can easily link you to that data. But when we are talking about big data, there are huge, huge volumes of this data. So when we are using these huge volumes, what we usually do is we anonymize all of this. We take out, uh, the personal identity part. Uh, fuzzy fight and say that, uh, you, we put you in a pattern, right? So you are not an individual anymore. You are part of a pattern. So that's how you usually try to anonymize all the datasets. And that is very true in all of the cases worldwide, uh, unless, and until. Uh, uh, somebody really wants, uh, crime data, uh, for which they want to track. You only, it is a through certain, uh, uh, high level clearances that that can have such kind of personal identity data can be, uh, diverse to otherwise for regular research and, uh, uh, information dissemination purposes. All your personal identity is always safe. So anonymous. It is one of the biggest, uh, concerns, which must be. Uh, alleviated or which must be a leap, uh, when it, when it comes to use of, uh, it, uh, use of ICT in transportation. So a cell phone triangulation is usually done, uh, in order to find out, uh, the location of your mobile phone. And hence, uh, can you, uh, one can estimate or predict. At what, uh, travel, uh, uh, at what speed you were traveling and then can, uh, further deduce that, uh, what mode of transportation you might have, you might have been using as well. Right? If you're traveled only at one kilometer per hour speed, it cannot be that you're traveling in a Metro most likely to not be that you're traveling in a Metro rail or something you might be walking, maybe. So if you're traveling at 45, 55 kilometers per hour, And, uh, the speed is constant then, uh, it might be there's something that, something like that dedicated mass rapid transit system on which you are, because you are not, uh, there is no, uh, variation in the speed while you're traveling. Whereas if there is variation, then it might be on a surface transportation mode, which is traveling, uh, on, uh, not, uh, on a non-writer on a non dedicated right of way. For example, a bus. Uh, which, uh, may be able to achieve 35 kilometers per hour. But, uh, sometimes because of traffic is low as well. So its our cellular phone data not only allows you to, uh, measure the speed or estimate the speed, but it may further then allow you to, uh, even, uh, uh, know that weather, uh, which mode of transport, uh, what are you using at that point in time? Right? Uh, so this is all possible because there's a unique Mac address, uh, from a Bluetooth or other devices that can be tracked, right? These, your cell phones are your mobile phones, always have a unique Mac address that can be tracked. Uh, again, the unique Mac address has, has to be, uh, the information or your personal information has to be anonymized after which only after which can we use this kind of information. Uh, the other technique is to use GPS based methods, uh, where, uh, some of the vehicles are high-end vehicles that are equipped with in-vehicle satellite navigation or GPS systems that have two way communications with the private provider provides you, uh, readings of the vehicles, uh, as well as maybe nowadays they are not even using, uh, hardware, but just using your smartphone data. In order to, uh, find out, uh, your location. Uh, you're not even communicating with the satellites there because your smartphone is already communicating. So you're in vehicle, uh, in vehicle, there are very few vehicles that currently have in vehicle and navigation systems because they have become, uh, redundant, uh, as the mobile phones have made them redundant. Uh, but this smartphone based which monitoring system is used to track speed and density very much. Right. Uh, so when you, uh, when you have your mobile phones on, uh, and then when you're, you're traveling in your car, it is essentially transmitting a lot of data that is allowing you, allowing researchers to understand the travel time on that corridor. So what is triangulation? Let us give you a quick understanding of what is triangulation or, and, uh, and, uh, trilateration as well. Triangulation is based on a Technomic tree that if one side and two angles of a triangle are known, the remaining sites can be computed. Right? Remember it basic trigonometry, one side and two angles of a triangle are known. The remaining sites can be computed. However, trilateration is the measurement of the lengths of the three sides. Of a series of touching our overlapping triangles on the earth surface for the determination of a relative position of points. Now, what happens is, you know, in a, in a, in a 3d space, minimum of four points have to be known, right? So if you are, if you're measuring something on the surface, uh, at least four, you need four points in order to. Uh, find out the correct our exact position or relative position offer, uh, offer, uh, object. Whereas in a 2d plane, you have to know only three points. So what happens is if there are two cell phone towers and they are overlapping, there are now two possible positions on which you can be. Right? So if there are only two cell phone towers that are tracking you and, uh, then you can be either here. At pollution air pollution. So you will always need another, at least another cell phone tower. Therefore at least one more cell phone tower is needed to positively determine the location of your cell phone. So now if you have a third cell phone tower here, and that also intersects with your location here, then we can positively say you're at eight. Or if you have a cell phone tower here and it, uh, uh, triangulates and tells your location to be here. Then you can see that you're at B. So usually two cell phone towers are not, uh, ideal. Uh, you have to have three cell phone towers to correctly, accurately determine your location. So for example, if you are told to determine the position of a car, which is 13 kilometers, 25 kilometers and 29 kilometers from cell phone towers, as well as to N S three respectively. Right? So. Here are three cell phone towers, as well as two S3 determine the position of a car, which is 13 kilometers from S one. So it is 13 kilometers from S one 25 from us to 25 from us two and 29 from S3. The distance between two towers as to an S3 is also given is 36. Right. As soon as the driver is carrying a cell phone, which could be used for trilateration considering the three, uh, uh, phone towers also assume that the car is in it, Cartesian coordinate system X by play. Okay. So now if it's, if we just draw a Cartesian plane X and Y axis that S3 beader origin and the car's location, P X Y is right here is given P X, Y is here. So in this triangle first, let us look at the triangle, uh, a S P right this time SDP. So we know that simple D three squared is equal to X squared, plus Y squared right here. Right? So this squat is going to express, uh, X squared, plus Y squared, D three. You've already been given the distance D three D three is. Uh, 29. Uh, so 29 squared is equal to X squared, Y squared. So you can convert that into a wifi arm last similarly, in the other triangle, a S to, uh, um, a S a P uh, you know, again, uh, 25. So D two is D two is we know as 25. So 25 squared is equal to X squared plus Y squared. Whereas. X now, you know, the distance you are, you already know this is X and you know that this is 36, right? Because, uh, because you've already been told that the distance between the two towers as to an SDS 36, so this distance is statistics. And in, in this, you have already assumed that this is X. So this must be 36 minus X, all squared plus Y squared. So if you just. Solve, uh, solve these two equations, you will get X is equal to 21. And if you put this X is equal to 21 into, uh, one of the equations that one you will get, Y squared is equal to 400 or you'll have two values of why now? Why could we either plus 20 or minus 20 now you have had possibly two different locations where your car could be. It could be either at an X Y look at location 2120 on a Cartesian plane, or it could be in a location 21 minus 20 on a contingent plate. But from the figure you see that the third cell phone tower is above the x-axis, but we have only used information about S3 and S two, right? Only two cell phone towers. So far we have used information about, but from the figure, you can see that the third cell phone tower as one. We just above the X axis. Hence you can reject the values of the negative value of Y saying that, Oh, this will not be possible. Hence the position of the car would be, you want to go to 2120. So. Even though two cell phone towers are required to finding the value of PX. Y we could only find the true value of P only with the help of a third tower. So that is the most important part to remember is that in order to use cell phone tower information, to determine where a vehicle is. So this is only, this is not even, we have not even gotten into a measuring speed or anything. This is just. Locating a vehicle inner X Y play. Right? So where is a vehicle on X Y plane, just for locating it. If you use cell phone towers, you have to remember that there has to be at least three cell phone towers to positively identify where the vehicle is. Two cell phone towers are not good enough. Uh, the third, uh, type of data collection, uh, that its technologies allow you to do with. Wide area data. Now the wide area data is something that is now more and more being used in India as well, because there are a lot of satellites, uh, that, uh, India has specifically put an orbit that allows you to take pictures about the urban area and how the urban area is changing, uh, where the roads are coming up, where new roads. Uh, being built where new roads have been widened, how the urban farm is changing. So all of that information is then being converted into what is known as that. GIS are using the GIS format to display. Now you, we, we assume we use a Google all the time, but the basis of all the Google maps and everything is a geographic information systems, it is based on a lot of it is based on remotely sensed, uh, information that is coming out. Right. So satellite sensors. It provides pictures, aerial photographs, and images. They are then processed using photochromatic processing for programmatic passing is the science of technology making measurements. Right? So not just through a picture, how can you convert it into, uh, information? Right. If you just take picture, you have to. Use it, you have to use certain, uh, science to convert that picture into data. Right. So how do you convert all the data? How do you convert it into data is through photogrammetric processing. Uh, you must have all also heard about. RFID tags, uh, the most, uh, uh, easy, uh, uh, location where you might have seen it is when you are using an airline and your back, uh, baggage has been, uh, you take in a baggage and they put a tag on your baggage, and there's a barcode kind of, uh, information there. Most of that is kind of RFID technology that allows you to track your, uh, bags from point a to point B to point C uh, The RFID has been used in the, uh, very earlier times of, uh, its uh, to, uh, locate makers as well. Uh, now, although a lot of, uh, uh, um, uh, mobile phones have now replaced, uh, RFID technology, uh, mobile phones, like I said, uh, and, uh, and it is ever-increasing from 3g to 4g and now we are. Uh, talking about 5g. So all that, all it is doing is it is increasing. The efficiency are always remembered that it is increasing the efficiency. And hence also should be increasing the safety on our highways. Uh, what remote sensing allows you to do is it allows you to break up a picture into different layers, right? Uh, one, once a single picture is taken, you can now break it up into different layers. Study each of those layers separately then recombine them. So it allows you, uh, to, uh, combine information about, say for example, uh, different parcels zoning. What is the flood pain planes? Uh, what are the wetlands? What are the land covers soil? So all that information which you would have had in separate different, different maps, right? Physical maps would have been there. People would have conducted surveys of flood plain or flood paints or where map would have been there. Uh, people would have zoning maps. Separately now all of these maps could be digitized.