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Module 1: Gestión de demanda de viajes

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In this class, uh, what we are going to look at is what are the different types of parking facilities to give you an understanding where parking can be managed, how it can be managed, uh, what are the benefits and drawbacks? Uh, how do you actually, uh, uh, carry out or conduct parking studies that will enable you to, uh, then implement, uh, these, uh, push measures, uh, for your cities and, uh, give you an example, uh, problem of, uh, how parking and so parking is a phenomenon in urban areas in every city or town in India that is growing. Uh, it is, uh, Uh, either has already become a problem or a, is a ticking time bomb, as they say, ours is going to become a problem in the very near future, right? Because the growth rate of, uh, the rate at which our, uh, ownership or vehicle ownership, uh, is increasing, uh, and, uh, also, uh, the rate at which, uh, we are using. Uh, our private vehicles are all of these. Uh, these two factors are actually, uh, uh, increasing the demand for parking facilities. But on the other hand, when you look at the supply side, uh, you see that, uh, most of the demand for parking is at, uh, areas which are, uh, in prime locations, right? People want to go to a mall, which is in a. Uh, hi, uh, land value price area, uh, and park their vehicles and use, uh, and use, uh, the model facilities, or they want to go to a shopping center, which is in the CBD and want to, uh, park their vehicle there. But, uh, all these, uh, uh, parking facilities. Uh, required lots, a huge land. And, uh, the prices of the land are very low, uh, very high. So you cannot just provide free parking at these places. Right? Uh, the malls, uh, have adopted to, uh, providing parking, uh, either in underground or overgrown facilities. Uh, but they do charge for parking. Uh, so, uh, this whole concept of, uh, free parking, uh, is, uh, slowly is either has disappeared or is going to disappear in the very near future. Uh, the other type of parking. That usually used to be rampant, uh, in most of the, uh, urban areas in our cities is on-street parking and it used to be rampant, uh, meaning people used to just park their car on the street and just go and do the shopping and come back. I mean, uh, this type of, uh, informal. On street parking is also going to go away. Uh, more and more cities are now adopting to, uh, some sort of a paid system, uh, where you would pay for the parking, even if it is on street. Uh, on-street parking actually, uh, helps in, uh, uh, calming the traffic or helps in reducing the speed of the traffic. Uh, that is flowing on that, uh, road. So on street parking, uh, sometimes it's beneficial, but it has to be regulated. It has to be priced so that people don't misuse, uh, parking and just park their vehicle for the entire day. Uh, because that space, that. Space is very, very valuable, right? Especially in Indian conditions, uh, because of the street vendors and, uh, that, uh, vending, is there a means of livelihood if you take up that space, uh, for a parked vehicle, most likely, uh, their livelihood gets affected. So, uh, here is a conundrum that do you want to allow. Right. Goes to park and access. Uh, the more established shops are, do you want to actually allow a street vendors to have, uh, access to people, uh, along the streets so that they can gain livelihood? Right? So that is also something that we face. Especially not when, uh, 80 has in India as to where to provide for parking or where not to provide for on street parking. So when we talk about parking, you should be able to distinguish between these two types of parking. One is on street, on is off street, off street is, uh, generally at a designated garage, uh, where you eat at, uh, it's, uh, uh, old ground or underground. You park that it's a dedicated facility, whereas on streets. If you add parking along the street. So this is, this is called on-street parking you're right along the street. Sometimes you'll have on-street parking on both sides of the road. These are usually in a residential neighborhoods then automatically what happens is, is that the width of the road gets reduced for the through vehicle. And, uh, automatically the speed of the vehicle also gets reduced. So often you will see residential areas encouraging. Uh, on the street, parking on both sides so that the traffic automatically is calmed or the speed of the traffic is, uh, lowered. And hence it becomes safer for people delirious. Uh, and these are off street parking, whether you are in a surface lot, these are called surface parking lots are whether you are in a, um, structure or a garage, uh, where. You are parked at different levels, uh, over grounder above ground also, uh, bicycle parking just as we looked in, the last lecture is becoming important and they also require a dedicated bicycle parking spots. They may be along with a, in the same structure as the motorized vehicles, but at least within the structure, they have a dedicated space for a bicycle parking. So what happens when you implement good or when you have good management of these parking, it, uh, uh, it increases autumn, well, occupancy, meaning now there are more and more people who are, um, uh, carpooling for example, so good parking management, meaning, uh, usually this parking good management means. Uh, you're good pricing policies right now. Uh, there were three friends of you. Uh, three of your friends decide that you want to go out, uh, on a weekend and have a, uh, watch a movie and all of your three would come in your own vehicle and park and go to the movie. But now that you know, that parking is so expensive, maybe now we've decided that, well, let us not take. Uh, three different vehicles, let us carpool together and go in one week. Right? So that increased the vehicle occupancy. Uh, so good parking management increases increases vehicle occupancy. It decreases person trips. Uh, now a single occupancy, three trips are being reduced to a one trip of multiple occupancy, right? Uh, so single person trips are reduced. Uh, that causes faster travel time. So now three vehicles, there are two vehicles, less on the road. All three friends of you are carpooling. Uh, so congestion goes down. Now, if you aggregate it up to all of the people in your city, we see that there may be very few. Are there, there may be a significant decrease in the number of vehicles. Uh, on that road and maybe, uh, the travel times increase right. Or delays decrease, uh, increase in transit usage. Now, if you have good parking, like we have looked at park and ride facilities, remember? Right. Uh, so we have looked at park and ride facilities where you can, uh, now come and, uh, ride, uh, transit or, uh, Uh, high-speed transit, uh, uh, system. You can park your car right there and not take your car inside because again, maybe that is condition pricing, uh, that is associated with it. So all of these strategies, good parking strategies, uh, good spots where your parking garage is located. Enable high transit usage. Uh, it looked at degrees in congestion, uh, automatically, uh, emissions are reduced because fewer number of vehicles are on the road and it also generates economy. Uh, this is, uh, I think I remember, uh, talking on this topic, uh, earlier as well. Uh, but, uh, usually when, uh, parking management are good parking management, uh, Strategies are being adopted. The local shops get really, uh, uh, anxious saying that, well, now if you're going to charge for parking, maybe people are not going to come to our shops. Uh, and, uh, hence our revenues are going to go down. Uh, but what has been noticed actually is that. Uh, you need to provide them a good parking at a location that does not affect the, uh, circulation of traffic in these CBD areas. Uh, if you do that, the revenues. Will not go down of these shops. People will still come to those shops, but we'll come in alternate modes. Now they will not just abandon the shops because these shops have been there for a long time. They have established a good name for themselves. So people usually do want to go those go to the shops, but now they would come using a different mode, maybe on a Metro, maybe, uh, on an all-out, but or something, some other sustainable mode, maybe bicycle, maybe public bicycle sharing system. So they would just come in a different mode. And this has been noticed. Uh, where you apply good parking management. Alternatively, if there is inadequate parking management, that would cause congestion. Uh, parking maneuvers, uh, maneuvering accidents. So if you don't have, uh, especially this happens, uh, when you are coming out of a parking garage or a parking structure, for example, and if you don't have good sight distance, uh, then you pull out of a garage very quickly at high speed. Uh, then you may, uh, immediately, uh, face an accident once you come out or even when you're parked on street. Uh, usually not many of us aren't adept to parking parallel parking. Uh, so usually you bump into the car, uh, in front of you or behind you and then make us, uh, accidents, uh, when you're pulling out of that spot. Uh, it has also been noticed, uh, that, uh, When you are parking on, on street, especially when you're parking on street, uh, when you open the door to get out, you usually do not see are usually not very, uh, focused on the pedestrian or the bicycle that may be just going past your door. And you may open actually the door on a pedestrian or a bicycle. So that is another type of accident that may happen if you don't. Uh, if you're not, uh, very vigilant and you don't have good parking management. Uh, we started these in place. Uh, nice pollution air pollution, really grease because now people are using the private vehicles and such and such. They may be obstructing, uh, emergency vehicles as well. So good parking management is one of the, uh, so parking you'll see is actually, um, a parking pricing is actually a push measure and there are some parking strategies. That may also, uh, attract you to public transport, for example. So it may, it may also be here we'll measure. So it's some kind of a hybrid, uh, TBM measure, which can sometimes act as a pool and a push measure. Mostly it is a push measure because you are pricing these parking, uh, and allowing, and disincentivizing people from using that card. So some of the parking terminologies that you have to be, uh, you have to be knowing in order to conduct our carryout analysis. We are going to look at, we are going to look at them very quickly. Now, uh, the basic unit, uh, for parking is called space hour, uh, because you know, you have to define the use of a single parking space for a period of one hour. Uh, so usually, uh, uh, it's not, uh, how many vehicles park. But it is usually how many vehicles park or one hour, right? That is the basic unit for parking, because we want to utilize the space to the maximum. We want to have maybe fewer spaces and that all those other spaces full all the time, rather than have. Lot of spaces and only have half of the spaces utilized for the majority of the time. Right? So space hour is the unit of parking that defines the use of a single parking space for a period of one hour. So that's an average period of one hour of parking. And then what is parking accumulation? The number of part vehicles. Yeah, the parking facility at any specified time. So that is parking accumulation. Data can be plotted on a curve, uh, against time. So this is, uh, the most common. Uh, parking accumulation curve that you would see, you would see that the number of, uh, uh, cars parked on the y-axis and this is the time of the day. So you will see that as, uh, say this is the, uh, 8:00 AM in the morning and night. And so at 8:00 AM in the morning that I've, uh, just fewer than 200 cards, but at, uh, for example, uh, at, uh, 4:30 PM, uh, that are almost, uh, 500 cards. Uh, any type of facility. So of, so this is kind of, this is called a parking accumulation. And now if you want to know the parking load barking load is nothing but the area under the accumulation curve between any two specific times. So if you are asked to determine what is the parking load of a, of a structured between. Uh, 12:00 PM and 4:00 PM. Then you just need to convert this into a different, uh, triangles and rectangles and squares and just calculate the area. Gotcha. So you just calculate the area under that curve, and that is the parking lot. Again is expressed in terms of space out. Uh, the next is parking volume. That is the total number of vehicles using a parking space, uh, facility during a specified. Length of time in a day. So that's just parking volume. Uh, so you see what is the difference between a parking volume and a parking lot, for example? So you have to, uh, be very, very careful when you use these terminologies. So, uh, we know of these, uh, uh, elements, uh, in the back of our mind, but now that. Uh, you are learning the scores, uh, make sure that when you use a, that makes sure that you use specific terminologies at specific points in time. So that you're clear in your, uh, communication, uh, during the, uh, during constructing of a parking garage or whatever it is. Uh, parking volume is the total number of vehicles using the facility during a specific length of time in a day. Parking turnover is an important thing because the rate at which a parking spaces used.Right. That's what I was telling you just earlier. Uh, we are always interested off utilizing our space to the maximum. So this is the rate at which a parking spaces used is usually obtained by dividing the parking volume for a specified period by the number of parking spaces. So that is obtained. That is the. Ratio of, uh, parking volume to number of parking spaces. That is the parking turnover. Parking deficiency is the extent to which demand exceeds supply in terms of parking spaces. So we'll tell you how to calculate a parking demand and parking supply. So if a demand exceeds supply, then you say that there is a deficiency in parking, uh, parking duration. It's simple length of time. Vehicle is parked in a specified parking space, average parking duration. However, what is the ratio between the total vehicle hours and the number of vehicles park, right? Average vehicle. So what you want to do is total vehicle hours, meaning the parking load, remember parking load ex-president space, ours. So that is the total vehicle, uh, total vehicle hours and the number of vehicles parked. So number of vehicles parked is. Uh, parking volume. So parking load by parking volume gives you the average parking duration. And there is something called a parking index, which is actually the occupancy or the efficiency of the system of the entire parking system. It is defined as the ratio of the number of bays occupied. Uh, in a time duration, total spaces available. So this is parking capacity or the total spaces that are available. And this is the parking lot on the top or the number of bays that are occupied in it, time duration. So you always want your load and capacity to be, uh, equal so that, uh, you have a parking index as close to as possible to. A one or a hundred, so that then you are efficiently running your barking system, right? So those are some basic terminologies and we'll get to some example problems at the end of this lecture, which will allow you to, uh, understand these basic terminologies. Uh, in a new medical, uh, way. Uh, but, uh, let us just look at how you, uh, uh, carry out parking studies. Uh, again, uh, parking is taught, um, as a part of, uh, traffic engineering courses. And you do have a field traffic engineering courses on NPT as well, where they go into much more detail about how to do all of this. However, since we are looking at it from the point of view of sustainability and parking management, And push and pull measures. So we are going to just give you a, uh, overview of how to conduct these parking studies. Uh, first of all, you have to have an inventory of existing parking facilities in your CBD, for example, uh, maybe if you're given a task that, uh, determine how much deficiency of parking we have for our CBD. So that is maybe the, uh, exercise that you have been given, uh, as a traffic engineer or as a. Uh, urban transport planner and you have to carry out, uh, this exercise. What you will do is at least first, uh, know how many parking facilities are there. What are the inventory? What is the capacity also identify who, which are the parking generators are like, where are people actually are going to after they're parking their vehicles? So those are the land users that are generating the need for parking. So those are called parking generators. So are they going? Majority of them are going to the mall. Majority of the going to the movie theater and majority of them are going to a restaurant. So what, where is the parking demand? Who are these generators that are generating this demand? So you have to identify those generators. Uh, then you have to collect data on parking accumulation, parking turnover, and parking duration. You have to know how long on an average people are parking for it. Right. How long are they parking for, for one space? What is the turnover? Right. And then you have to see during two periods of time, how much actually accumulate accumulation is that?

What is the entire load of parking? How many spaces actually is needed based on this need, then you can carry out your parking demand and parking supply as well. So this has to be a demand and supply that you need to carry out that new to analyze. And to see that well, on an average, people are parking for, uh, 35 minutes and during the peak demand time, uh, there is, uh, there are 500 vehicles such vehicles that need to park. Uh, so now do I have enough spaces based on the turnover? Do I have enough spaces, uh, that will cater to that demand? So that is what you have to measure when you are measuring. Parking demand and matching it with the supply. If the supply is less than you say that, well, we have to provide this much amount of, uh, this many more parking spaces. If the supply is sufficient, uh, you say that, uh, for the next five years we have enough supply. Uh, maybe there are some demand management strategies that we need to do. So always do parking analysis for at least the next year. Yeah, two years, five years, don't only do it for today because if you know that a new residential complex is coming on a new movie theater and a multiplexer scrubbing, then you have to incorporate that into the demand analysis so that you provide enough capacity for them as well. Okay. In addition information to lead to financial legal and recent matters also has to be collected because how much would you charge? Uh, if you heard to subsidize for parking, which is not. Uh, often, uh, uh, encouraged, uh, in the modern, uh, urban transportation world, but still people do subsidize for parking. Uh, so if you had to do that, who's going to pay for the parking, uh, out of the, uh, out of those situations. What do we also worked out? Because, uh, as we are only focused on the transportation aspect, we are telling you about these points, but these are important to go along with them as well. Uh, usually there are certain standards that have been developed in India, uh, that allows you to, uh, at least estimate how many spaces that parking spaces you would need. Uh, uh, uh, usually the ministry of urban development has developed all these, uh, guidelines, uh, and they are given, uh, in, uh, in the form of what is called an equal and car space and based on different types of land uses, uh, equal and car space is nothing but. Uh, spaces, uh, measured in terms of, uh, one guard unit, right? So the guard unit is taken as the base and for one car you would need one space. So that ECE is ECS is one, whereas, uh, for two wheelers, uh, you'll need only quarter of that space. So, uh, that means that you can park for two wheelers at. Uh, the space that is provided to park one car. So that is the kind of, uh, units, uh, ECS, uh, retirements. And you are, uh, different standards are, are different guidelines are developed for that. So if you have a residential plot, anywhere between two 50 and 300 square meters, uh, you should, uh, have our, you should provide for. Do ECS, uh, for those plots. So that should be sufficient. So this is all done based on a lot of studies that have, that have been carried around, uh, around India. And, uh, um, uh, parking has been, uh, parking, uh, demand and supply has been measured at various land uses. And based on that, uh, based on those large number of studies, all of this has been given. So for example, a hotel, if you have a hotel of a hundred square, Um, we had a floor area, then you would need, you would need three, uh, equal, uh, gas-based spot every a hundred meters. So if you have 800 meter, 800 a square meters of floor area, then he would need eight and two, three 24 equal and cost basis. So you can do all those calculations for all the different types of land uses that are given here. That gives you an estimate at least. Uh, in the back of your mind, uh, what you need, uh, now, uh, uh, these may vary and you may have to do your own thing. For example, the hotel may be, uh, not in an urban area, but in a suburban area, maybe that changes the requirement for. Uh, your, uh, your, uh, parking spot number of parking spaces, uh, that then you may do your own calculation, but at least no, that, uh, this is the, uh, guidelines that are available. Uh, then you prohibit parking, right? Uh, you also have to know when you're doing parking management, you have to know where to provide parking, where not to provide park, right. Uh, near intersections. Uh, parking is, uh, discouraged. Uh, on-street parking is definitely discouraged, but also large parking structures are also, uh, discouraged to be very close to the intersection, uh, uh, narrow streets. Uh, you would not encourage a on-street parking maybe, uh, at the max. You would have a on-street parking on one side of the street, but definitely not on both sides, uh, on pedestrian crossings. Uh, odd. I would also say unfortunately on sidewalks as well. Right. You would see. Uh, and many odd one sidewalks, uh, in India, uh, people have just parked their vehicles. So that is not a parking space, not a parking spot. Uh, not for parking your bicycle, not for parking your two Wheeler, not for parking your car. Definitely not. So these are not, uh, uh, places where you should park and they should be a prohibitory signs put up so that people actually, uh, although they may seem common sense, but then. Uh, common sense is not so common as they say. Right? So putting up signs, uh, tree signs of no parking does help. Of course it has to be, uh, enforced as well, uh, near, uh, near large structures. Uh, you should try to avoid, uh, for example, uh, providing parking for every structure has to be, uh, kind of, uh, done away with, right. If you have multiple offices in one area, every office having a dedicated parking for itself is not a good idea. Maybe four or five office complexes. Uh, getting now, uh, together, build one parking structure and have, uh, all the employees back at this common parking spot are common parking structure other than everybody having their own structure. Right. Uh, that just, uh, adds up to space, uh, entrance, uh, of driveways, uh, driveways that open up to a street, uh, along, uh, at those points. You should not have a flat, uh, parking of course we have already told you limit free parking time. And have parking meters, uh, all of the place that allows you to charge for, uh, how much time you want to park on the street, right? Uh, maybe you have, uh, free parking. Like for example, if you go to some of the airports, uh, around India, you would see that there is some free parking that allows you to wait for say 30 minutes for the flight to come. And then you just pick up your a relative or friend, whoever is coming. But if you want to park for longer than 30 minutes, maybe not. Uh, for example, the flight is delayed and, uh, but, uh, if now your parking is more than 30 minutes, you have to pay. So there may be some free parking, but not all the time, uh, for longer, longer periods of duration of longer durations. Okay. Uh, so now, uh, there are some common, uh, parking surveys that are conducted. Uh, there, one of them, uh, are in and out surveys. Whereas the other one is, uh, license plate method survey. Uh, again, uh, this is just a quick overview of these, uh, manpower required is very less in this case, uh, for in and out surveys. Whereas if you are, uh, looking at, uh, license plates, uh, for example, uh, to understand which vehicle has gone in. Uh, which time and if the same vehicle is coming out of a parking structure at a later time, and if you're looking at license plates, then you need to have a lot of manpower. Whereas if it's just an in and out survey, uh, this vehicle went in, this vehicle came out, uh, you don't care, uh, for the particular vehicle tracking, uh, then you need a lesser manpower. Uh, but an in and outs survey, uh, is conducted for a different reason. And, uh, License plates surveys conducted for a different reason, uh, in and out surveys are conducted in order to know that the occupancy count in the selected parking lot, uh, in order to calculate the occupancy count or the number of vehicles entering and leaving at a particular time, interval is counted and the final occupancy can be taken, but parking duration and turn out cannot be opt-in. So if you have to have, if you have to calculate the parking turnout or parking duration, uh, in and out service, Do not allow you to do that. So if you study those a little bit in detail, or if you have taken any, uh, traffic engineering courses, uh, you would know, uh, why that happens. But as in, uh, in, uh, when you do a license plate survey or a carry out a license pit survey, it is the more accurate and realistic results. Every parking lot is monitored at a continuous interval of 15 minutes and license plates are loaded again. Uh, when you're noting license plates, Uh, in order to, uh, have security or privacy, uh, what usually is done is the only the last four digits in the last two days of license plates are recorded so that they cannot be tracked back to, uh, the owner, uh, duration of a parking vehicle can be update. So this is a much more comprehensive way of conducting, uh, parking studies, uh, the license plate method of serving. Uh, now, if you were to go back to, uh, our, uh, terminologies and try to understand them, uh, in the form of a, of a, of a simple example problem, uh, what is shown here is, uh, there are, uh, three parking bays. Okay. Um, B one B2 B3, and, uh, during different times of the day, different vehicles are coming in. Barking in these bays, right? Uh, so, uh, at, uh, say 15th minute of any hour, uh, there is only this car, number one that is parked. So that's why, uh, this accumulation Gulf shows you that there is only one cup, whereas, uh, in the 30th minute you will see that even this car is parked. So card number one is still parked. Uh, whereas another car has come, we just got number four. So now you have. In the parking accumulation curve, you have two cars, uh, as the time goes. Now you see that in the 45th minute a car one is no longer there, right? Car one is already gone. The 45th minute, there is no carbon, but there is only car four. So again, the accumulation curve drops down to showing, uh, one car, uh, in the 60th minute. There are no cars to zero, uh, in the 75th minute. There is another car that has come into be two. Now, similarly, the 90th minute, there's another car that has come at B a one. Again, this is a different car. This is car one. This is the car to, uh, however, uh, the peak number of cars that are there at any point in time is three, which is at the 150 minutes where there's another car, car five that has come on B three and car three is still parked in car two is still parked. But at the end of the second hour or the end of this should be one 20. Uh, there are, uh, only one car left, which is the God number four. So this is a very, very simplistic way of understanding how to measure our, how to estimate, uh, how to calculate, uh, uh, different, uh, different, uh, statistics and measures that we have. Introduced to you earlier. So now if we look at, if somebody asks you, what is the parking volume, given this situation, all you have to understand all your two says how many number of vehicles are there, right? So the parking volume for this, uh, two hour period is on two, three, four, five. So there are five vehicles. Total volume is five. However, what is the parking load? What you have to do is for, in order to calculate the parking load, you have to calculate the area between each of these, uh, the parking accumulation curve, right? So the parking lot, the first one is one. Then it is two than it is one because all of them are in 15 minute periods. So the 15 is in the outside. Otherwise you had to multiply each width. Uh, with its own duration, uh, then at 60 there's none. So, so on and so forth, you multiply each of them with 15, uh, and parking load is given per hour. So, uh, it is 2.75 hours. So if anybody wants you to, uh, are asks you, what is the parking load at such a parking structure? You would say that again, remember the units are always paced out. So you're saying in terms of vehicle hour. So there are 2.75 vehicles, a vehicle hours of parking load in this parking facility. Uh, the next time that you would want to calculate as the average parking duration, remember hours, parking duration is nothing but parking load by parking volume. So the average parking beautician is 33 minutes at this parking structure.