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Module 1: Gestión de demanda de viajes

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Pull Measures Cases

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In today's lecture, what we are going to look at are the pull measures or the other half of the TDM measures as we call it. So, uh, in the, in the pool measures the different types of measures that we will be, uh, introducing you to include a bus, rapid transit system, bus lanes, or bus priority, uh, pedestrian infrastructure improvement, pedestrian zones, crosswalks and sidewalks. And bicycle improvements, Lenson bicycle sharing. So you will already have been, uh, introduced and, you know, very well. How many of them, of these systems work or many parts of these systems work? Because we have looked at them in the way usually now, uh, now, uh, you will be able to grasp, uh, how these can act as a pull measures, right? How this can help improve the efficiency of the existing system without. Uh, creating new capacity or without creating new supply, but at the same time, it will attract people to these sort of, uh, these, uh, sustainable modes, uh, rather than, uh, you, uh, continuing the use of, uh, your, uh, personal transit, which is not very sustainable. Uh, so, uh, improving transit, right? You, we have already looked at how can you improve the quality of your. Uh, public transportation system in your city, right? Uh, quality of service. We have looked at what, uh, what are the different, uh, measures that quality of service depends upon? Uh, so what, uh, the pull measures or the, uh, pole tedium strategy, uh, looks at is too. Uh, compare, uh, how does ridership change when you make a certain improvement in your transit service? So, uh, in other words, ridership change, meaning are people now going to use your public transit more as compared to their personal private transit? If you make certain improvements in your. Uh, existing, uh, public transportation network, right. And these improvements cannot be capacity related improvements. Uh, they could be, uh, ex how to improve the existing efficiency, right? How to increase the existing efficiency, uh, in, in, in extreme cases, in worst cases, like I said, capacity improvement is also, uh, one of the tools of improving efficiency, but it has to be the last tool that we resort to. Uh, we have to first exhaust all of the. Uh, TDM mechanisms are all of the mechanisms by which we can improve the efficiency of the got it system. Uh, most tier one and tier two cities have some form of public transport service, which requires modernization and improvements. Right? It is not just enough to say that I have a bus route. Uh, I have some bus stops and I run this service every one hour or every half an hour. And just lay back and say that, well, I have a public transport for my city. That is not enough, uh, that will not act as a pull measure that will not attract people to the bus transit or to the public transportation system. Remember, we are now talking about Chinese users, right? Uh, we are not talking about choice users, uh, that are one set of users who are captive users, captive users, meaning. Uh, they will use public transportation, uh, no matter what, because of their economic condition, maybe for example. So, uh, their economic condition just would not allow them to purchase a private vehicle for themselves. Uh, on a car or on a two Wheeler, that kind of thing. So they have to depend upon public transportation. So those, uh, that category of, uh, users are called captive for their captive to that mode. Whereas, uh, we not only want to improve the system for the captive users, but we also want to improve the system so that Joy's users now, uh, Chuy's users, meaning, uh, users who have a choice. Uh, to use, uh, their private modes are public transportation. So if you make your public transportation attractive, then maybe these joys users would now shift from using their private modes to the public transportation modes. So that is what we are more interested in. That is how DDM pull measures are applied or are implemented and then are measured, uh, how well they are working. It is. So it is not just good enough to have. Uh, uh, skeleton public transportation system, uh, in your city and say that, well, we do have a system, so we don't know why it is not working, why people are not using it so on and so forth. Uh, many cities have multiple public transportation operators, such as different bus companies, different local governments, right? If you have a large metropolitan area, uh, then you may have different agencies running different bus services. Often these route networks and schedules are not well coordinated. You have already looked at these examples. So these are low hanging fruits. What they call us low hanging fruits, right? If you address these without increasing them capacity, without adding new buses to the system, without buying new, new, bigger buses, you can itself improve the efficiency of the system. You can attract more users, right? So you have two different jurisdictions, uh, from a municipal corporation, you are going to a municipality area. Right in a large metropolitan area, that may be the case. You are no longer, or you're traveling from the city core to the, um, uh, suburban area or you're traveling from the suburban area to the city code. There may be two administrative jurisdictions. And now these buses, if the bus operator in one jurisdiction is not in sync with the bus operator in the other jurisdiction, then if the person has to transfer at the boundary of the administrative jurisdiction, then the user will face a problem. Right? Uh, if these transfers are not coordinated, if the schedules are not synced with each other, then nobody is going to use the public transportation system, uh, much. They're going to maybe just use it very rarely. Uh, only when, uh, uh, there is their vehicle breaks down, for example, or that vehicle is in the shop for some mechanical reason. Uh, so that is the only time then people start using public transportation. Otherwise they don't do it. So you have to, these are low hanging strategies, low hanging fruits that if you, uh, uh, if you improve on them or work on them, then you are a public transportation system can improve. And that can, the other is fair enough. Mission is another component that can, uh, uh, ease the use. Uh, this is, uh, a little bit difficult to do, but again, uh, to jurisdictional, uh, two jurisdictional agencies have to work, uh, in sync and not only two jurisdictions, maybe, uh, two different mode operators have to now work in sync. So for example, if you have government buses and, uh, private buses, uh, these two bus, uh, operating agencies has to work in sync. Saying that well, if one person has to go from point a to point B, uh, he or she has to, uh, transfer at point C in between from a private to a public bus. Uh, but. Once he, or she has paid a fee on either of the buses, he or she need not pay another fee on the other bus. And in the background, the fee sharing and everything can happen between the two agencies, right? Uh, the two agencies should get their share of money, but, uh, the users should pay it only once. And in the background, you can have a system set up an algorithm set up in such a manner. That, uh, the fee sharing is happening, happening automatically, right? So far for the user, it has benefit, right? Uh, he or she, he's only paying once and, uh, uh, the transactional costs also go down. Now, if you have two different types of systems into different buses, uh, then, uh, Uh, one transaction cost, uh, and one bus maybe, uh, different from the transaction cost and the other bus. And these two, uh, may causing the, uh, may, uh, cause uh, the, uh, increase in fare slightly, whatever percent it might be, these transactional costs, everything add up to the fare of the system. So yeah, if you avoid that, if you eliminate that and have only a fair integration between two modes or between. Um, multiple modes in multiple jurisdictions, then, uh, you, you improve the efficiency and, uh, uh, ridership is likely to increase. Right. We have already kind of touched upon that various modes you may have. Uh, so when you, uh, improving transit, uh, also, uh, means, uh, improving the, uh, type of transit, maybe. So now we are talking about actually, uh, doing some capacity improvements, right? So when you shift or when you make the improvement from your. Uh, regular city bus, bus, transport, and upgraded to a BRTs or a bus rapid transit system. What you're actually doing is you are not only, uh, improving, uh, the functionalities of bus, uh, the system, but also creating some additional capacity now. So now this increase in capacity is, uh, uh, better in terms of urban transport sustainability. Versus the pure increasing capacity in terms of, uh, Weidlinger uh, road. So what has been seen is that in cases when, uh, urban transport officials actually do want to widen a road, if that extra capacity is used for any public transportation mode, Then that kind of a widening or increasing capacity or increase in supply is welcome. Uh, it is, uh, it acts as a, um, a pull measure. It acts as it not as a deterrent to sustainability, it is it actually an attractive, uh, force towards. Uh, sustainability. So, uh, this kind of improvement from a, uh, from a skeleton bus network or from an existing, uh, bus network that runs on a mixed right of way to creating a bus rapid transit system that has owned. Right-of-way also increases the, um, attractiveness of, uh, bus, rapid transit or public transportation, and people get attracted to it. And we have already told you what are the reasons. Uh, wire BRT is better than the bus, a regular city bus network. It is because they have their own right-of-way. Uh, they may have what is called, um, uh, priority at signalized intersections, right? They're called bus priority signals. So when, once the BRTs is at the signal, uh, and other traffic is also stopped at the signal, the BRTs gets priority green time, so they will leave the, uh, they would exit the intersection first and then the green time will be given to the rest of the. Uh, uh, the rest of the traffic so that, uh, the bus is not obstructed, uh, within the, uh, other modes of the, uh, traffic at the intersection. And they can leave first. So that is again, a measure that can improve, uh, transit, uh, performance and, and act as a pull measure, uh, to attract people, to use public transportation system. Uh, you could, you could just, you could also have dedicated bus lanes. Uh, sometimes you would not have a full fledged, uh, BRTs system, but, uh, you would see that at certain CBD areas inside of the central business district. Uh, areas what you would a regular bus transit, the regular bus transit system, the city bus transport system would also, uh, be given, uh, dedicated bus lanes. So this may be very close to a Depot when they're entering very close to the. Uh, terminal stop at the CBD or so on and so forth. You will see that, uh, the, where the condition is in the CBD, they will try to carve out a lane only for the buses so that the buses can then, uh, exit and enter and exit the CBD very quickly. Right. So these are also a certain means off and using the travel time on the bus, on the bus system, uh, if you reduce the travel time on the public transportation system, then again, people are attracted to this system. There's also sometimes possible. Uh, this is where the case, wherever the comprehensive BRTs system is not possible. Simple bus links can act as a feasible solution, right? These are not comprehensive. DRTs, uh, BRTs has dedicated right-of-way throughout the network. Whereas bus lanes may be only provided at certain, uh, areas in the city, for example, uh, the central business district and so on and so forth. Uh, any other, uh, we have already looked at one such other related measure, which is called bus priority. Uh, so you would see that this, uh, uh, um, uh, this diagram kind of explains to you how, how bus priority works. Uh, that are the transponders, uh, in the bus, uh, which, uh, act, uh, which are, um, in sync with the signals at the, uh, intersection and whenever this, uh, um, detector detects a bus coming. Uh, what it does is it allows you to, if the bus comes during the read time, it allows the bus to get green first. Uh, uh, alternatively, if it, uh, if it detects the buses arriving at the green time, but it can sense that, uh, by the time it arrived at the intersection, this is, uh, it, uh, signal would turn red. So what would we do? It, it would extend the green. Uh, so, so in order for them, Bus to cross the intersection. So it acts in two different ways. Eh, when it, um, uh, when this detective detects that the bus has arrived at the junction, when the signal is red, then what to do is, uh, well, it'll turn on the signal, uh, to green first for the bus, and then it would turn on the signal green for the, uh, other traffic. That means there are two different, uh, green signals, one for the bus. And one for that. Uh, uh, general traffic, you would have seen two different greens, uh, in cases of pedestrian crossings in some intersections, right? Where you have the green Walkman, uh, that has a different cycle and a different timing than the green for the other, uh, for the regular traffic. So similarly that could be for the bus. And in the second case, when it detects, the buses are arriving and the, and it is still green. But it can sense that by the time it comes to the intersection, the signal would turn red. So what it will do is it will extend the green. So give two, three more seconds of green so that the bus can know browse through the intersection. So these are all, uh, its our intelligent transportation systems that also we have given you an idea of how to develop our at least a brief understanding of what are the technologies involved and how communication works. Uh, what type of data flows are involved? We have already given you an idea about that. So you can build your own, uh, transit signal priority at your intersection at your city at a particular intersection where you may think that. Um, bus traffic is very high for example, and, uh, they are stuck in, uh, other kinds of traffic. So, uh, if you want it to provide a signal, these are these, these bus priority signals. Usually if they are not coordinated with all at all the intersections, then they don't work very well. Uh, so you may want to coordinate it if there are, uh, such coordinated signals in your CBD areas, or if there is one isolated intersection where you really see that the bus volumes are very high. Uh, so in those cases, uh, at such isolated intersections, you can definitely have, uh, these bus priority systems are bus priority signaling. Okay. Now, uh, if you, uh, were to be given these two pictures and you would, uh, you would be asked, uh, which type of, uh, by looking at these two pictures, can you. I guess, uh, where would a, which type of system would attract more? Uh, Joyce writers, uh, our system, our transport, our transport system that has bus stops. Uh, designed in this fashion, our, our transport system, where the bus stops are designed in this fashion. Right. So you will be able to, uh, at least have, uh, uh, educated, uh, I would not call it guess, but an educated answer saying that. Uh, this type of, uh, um, bus stop, which is on your left, uh, has a shelter associated with it. Uh, so it, uh, should be able to give more protection to people. Uh, during harsh weather times, it has. Uh, good seating capacity also, uh, at the, at the state at the bus stop. Uh, so people might be more attracted to, to, uh, take a bus from this bus stop, uh, rather than a very skeletal, uh, bus stop, uh, infrastructure where it just has a bench and no shelter. And, uh, the trashcan is kind of, uh, leaking here and there, no lid on the trash and so on and so forth. So you're a bus network or a public transportation network that has. Uh, bus stops designed in this fashion is more likely to attract more Chinese users. Whereas, uh, this type of network, a bus network with bus stations, which are shown in the picture on the right, are less likely to have attract more Chinese use. So this is the difference, uh, in different elements of a public transportation system, from which you can also gather, uh, how to design, uh, different pool strategies. In order to attract, uh, uh, attract people to public transportation. Similarly, when we now talk about pedestrian infrastructure, uh, what are the different design elements that, uh, would attract people to walk right now? Uh, uh, you already understand that people don't walk for longer distances, right? People, uh, uh, of a certain age would not walk a longer distance, um, uh, because of, uh, Um, physical, inability or any other measure. So the most, the most Joyce users who would want to walk are somewhere between a certain age group. So you have to make them, uh, walk as much as possible during an urban trip or during multiple urban trips that are shorter in relatively shorter in distance. Uh, you would notice that, uh, in many of our cities. Our trips are usually not very long because our cities are, uh, pretty dense, pretty compact. Uh, at least the city courts are. Uh, so, uh, land uses are very close to each other. So all these, uh, makes, uh, walkable, awakes walking very powerful. Uh, but, uh, if you don't have proper infrastructure in place, what happens is even the short trips, uh, which should be ideal for a walking, uh, gets replaced by. Uh, uh, trips on motorized tubulars, for example, or even motorized three wheelers, uh, which, uh, is really not the, uh, sustainable way of, uh, moving forward. Uh, so you have to understand, uh, what are the infrastructure that is needed along and at crossroads, uh, that would, uh, uh, encourage people from. Um, and get people to walk, uh, as opposed to, uh, as opposed to using, uh, unsustainable modes. Uh, this is a picture that shows, uh, uh, an intersection, uh, that has a, um, a traffic box, for example, um, all Mark, uh, like zebra crossing. So what that tells you is the signals? Uh, they have, uh, all red phase, uh, at the signalized intersection. Uh, where all the signals are red for a given amount of time, maybe 30 seconds, 45 seconds. And it allows people from all the directions to cross during that time. Uh, otherwise usually you would see that, uh, the, uh, at the junctions at the intersections, uh, uh, it's only red. Uh, red or green at particular times for particular, uh, legs of the intersection, right? That allows you the pedestrians only to cross one way from the traffic and not crossing a diagonal fashion because, uh, the traffic maybe is still moving. Uh, however, at, uh, junctions that have heavy pedestrian volume, what they do is they, uh, the signals are such a, um, uh, that, uh, uh, they are designed in such a fashion that. Uh, it gives a red phase to all the legs of the intersection, uh, for the motorized vehicles. And during that all red phase, uh, it is green for the pedestrians and the Protestants could cross, uh, diagonally cross parallelly or perpendicular to any, uh, direction. So that, uh, is another, uh, improving or enhancing, uh, existing facilities and making it more attractive to walk. Right. All you do is paint the zebra crossing and change the signal timing. Uh, and, uh, it does not take a lot of capital infrastructure or, uh, money to implement this kind of, uh, uh, pull measure, for example. Uh, similarly we have, uh, we have told you what are the different factors that are involved in, uh, improving the pedestrian level of service, for example, and these level improved by improving the pedestrian level of service. Uh, what you are actually doing is, uh, making the, um, uh, making the, uh, Walker or the pedestrian more comfortable during that walk or during that, uh, journey. And this attracts people to, uh, carry out the journey, uh, by walk. So some of the measures includes having, uh, having good, uh, uh, the seating infrastructure, for example, uh, along, uh, along the foot parts. Definitely having a good, uh, uh, uh, not having littered sidewalks, for example. Right. Sidewalks. Usually you would see, uh, are sometimes that are present, but are littered with various things because there is no, uh, proper, uh, garbage cans at, uh, uh, at, uh, uh, proper locations, right? So you have to, you have not pay attention to the entire right-of-way, for example, that is the. Oh, that is the meaning of a bull measure. Uh, you cannot just pay attention to the pavement section of the right of way and work on that pavement section. But if the right of it includes, uh, two sidewalks on both sides of the road, you have to pay attention to the sidewalks as well, because, uh, it is no good only providing a sidewalk, which is one meter wide and, uh, uh, uh, check tick. Um, provide a tick in any of the, uh, reviews saying that yes, we have provided a sidewalk and we are happy, uh, but a one meter sidewalk maybe, uh, equal to, uh, no sidewalk at all, because that does not provide a level of service that pedestrians need and hence nobody would walk on it. Uh, and then you would, you're left with unsustainable modes on the road, right? Uh, so all of these points essentially, uh, demonstrate that or demonstrate the same feature. Uh, again, you would see, uh, various, uh, infrastructure along the sidewalks that attract people to walk. Uh, you would even see, uh, during, uh, um, along certain neighborhoods or along certain, uh, central business district, uh, to calm the traffic down, right. Traffic coming, we learned about traffic coming. Uh, in couple of lectures, uh, before what they would do is they would narrow the streets. They would actually narrow the streets for motorized vehicles, or they would have a different texture of, uh, um, uh, pavement, uh, that would, uh, disallow vehicles to go very fast. Uh, so these are different techniques, uh, and then they would actually widen the sidewalk. So these are different techniques that makes walking, uh, more attractive in these areas. And hence people would now who would have, uh, previously taken that a two Wheeler, four Wheeler to come to, uh, this, uh, uh, restaurant for example, would now actually want to walk from their home here, for example. And, uh, because they have good, uh, sidewalks or good foot parts and, uh, Vehicular speed has calmed down. There's a speed coming that has happened. Uh, so these all are, uh, actually, uh, bullet measures that can help improve, but it's true transportation. Uh, of course, crosswalks, you all know about, uh, crosswalks. They are very, uh, essential, uh, especially because, uh, during your pedestrian journey, uh, between your origin and destination, you are bound to at least. Uh, encounter one intersection, if not multiple. Right? So at this intersection, you are actually, uh, now going to interact with motorists, although you are temporarily separated from the motorized vehicles, but yeah, if you don't have such designated crosswalks, then, uh, you often undertake what is called jaywalking and that reduces safety. And suddenly if you feel unsafe while walking, you would not, uh, undertake that trip. Uh, on the, uh, uh, as a pedestrian and you would maybe shift to a different mode, so we don't want that to happen. Uh, that is why we would provide a good crossing facilities. Uh, again, you are aware that if, uh, uh, the, the bit of the road that you're crossing is too, uh, too large, it's a divided Arbonne, arterial, uh, then it is best to provide, uh, uh, what is called an Island, uh, in between. Um, we, uh, in between our, on the median, so that, uh, the pedestrians who are crossing here can wait on this, uh, Island, uh, and make a second crossing. Uh, so you can cross the entire width of the road in two phases. Uh, this is the first phase wait here, and then maybe. This is the second phase, uh, based on how the traffic signal is designed at that intersection, right? This is very, very important at signalized intersections. Uh, sometimes you are also, uh, in need of a crosswalk at mid-block sections, where there is no signal. Uh, those are very, very tricky to design. Uh, you have to have certain, uh, traffic calming measures before you put in. Uh, this kind of a crosswalk as well, but these crosswalks also, uh, enhance your, uh, uh, walking prep, especially if the, uh, distance between two signalized intersections, uh, is, uh, very large or your block size or a city block sizes, uh, large, uh, then you would not want to walk all the way to the. Signalized intersection then cross and then maybe come back because your destination is in the mid-block on the other side of the road. Uh, so I, I, for such situations, uh, sometimes many cities do provide, uh, mid-block crosswalks, uh, although they are provided with other facilities such as, uh, maybe there's a flashing light, a flashing yellow light that shows. Uh, to the motorists, that that is a crosswalk coming up, which is unstabilized. Audio may have a, um, a raised pavement markers, um, that are lit, that lit up, um, at the crosswalk. Uh, so the whole point is, uh, that, uh, mid-block crosswalks also enhance the, uh, pedestrian, uh, participant journey and then attracts people to. Uh, walk more or encourages people to walk more. So those are also very, very important. Again, uh, uh, just like you showed you a picture for the transit stop. If I show you this two pictures and ask you which type of crosswalk would attract more people to walk, uh, you should be able to say that this is the crosswalk, which has. Uh, which has a median refuge Island. Uh, the crosswalks are, uh, nicely painted. And, uh, again, uh, the, uh, the ramps on the crosswalks are also, uh, uh, are also provided so that, uh, people with, uh, uh, special abilities or disabilities can actually use this, uh, crosswalk and get on the sidewalk safely for this. Type of, uh, uh, crosswalk is more, um, would attract more number of pedestrians. Whereas this is a crosswalk which almost leads to nowhere and the sidewalk is, uh, uh, very high on the other side. And somebody who was using this crosswalk has to know, jump up, uh, to become a better, are to access the, uh, sidewalk art. If anybody has to come from here, he or she has to jump down. So this is kind of a crosswalk, which does not. Um, make the trip very attractive and, uh, should not be provided anyhow, these as a safety issue anyways. Uh, so this is the type of crosswalk that would make your pedestrian trip more, uh, uh, more comfortable and more number of people would be attracted to such type of a trip. So these are, again, uh, look at all of these in the context of being pulled measures that you can provide, uh, for your, uh, pedestrian transport. Similarly, we have talked, uh, earlier in earlier classes, when we were looking at pedestrian, uh, transport, uh, uh, in depth, we had talked to you about pedestrian zones. Uh, your several CBDs can be converted into pedestrian zones during certain hours of the day or certain days of the week. Uh, that makes a pedestrian activity prioritized. Uh, and people would be, uh, more and more encouraged to. You such zones, right? Uh, these are three different, uh, pictures from three different cities that you will see that, uh, uh, uh, uh, an ADI the, at the intersection, uh, prior to, uh, uh, some pedestrian improvements. And this is a post, the pedestrian improvements where the median, uh, could be utilized for, uh, uh, open air cafe, for example, and make it more pedestrian friendly now, whereas this was being used as a, uh, informal parking lot. Uh, which was not very pedestrian friendly. This is of course times square, uh, which has experimented with having, uh, reduced, uh, lanes for motorized vehicles and more area for pedestrians. Now, for example, uh, finally looking at bicycle infrastructure, uh, we, uh, uh, many of the cities in India, uh, have lot of bicyclists, but. Uh, I have, uh, allowed these bicyclists to, uh, use the roadway, use the pavement and mingle with motorized traffic, uh, while, uh, during the journey, which sometimes is, uh, is okay. It's beneficial. Uh, when the speeds of the motorized vehicles are low, uh, but when the speed start getting higher, uh, there are some safety issues that creep up and makes the bicycle journey not so comfortable. And has, uh, people, uh, stop using, uh, bicycle modes. Uh, the other issue with bicycles, uh, uh, is that there is a stigma against it saying that it's, uh, uh, it's a mode for not the rich and the happening people. Uh, it's a mode for more. Uh, economically weaker sections. However, that has changed, uh, over the last two decades, especially, uh, after the turn of the millennium where now more and more people do want to bicycle longer distances even. Uh, and these are again, Chinese bicyclists, right? People who have the choice of using their motorized vehicles are now actually choosing bicycle, uh, during, uh, for certain types of trips, of course, for certain types of trips, uh, maybe it's a weekend trip to the grocery store. Uh, maybe it's a week, day trip once, once a week to your office, or once a week to your, uh, college? Well, college, most certainly, uh, should be, uh, all five days a week, five or six days a week. But, uh, there are different types of dedicated bicycle. Uh, facilities that can also be provided, uh, not just, uh, facilities that are, uh, uh, common along with the motorized vehicles, but dedicated facilities, for example, uh, this is a, this is a bicycle facility that allows bicyclists to, uh, cross an intersection, uh, without mingling with the motorized vehicles at all. So there's a great separated crossing for. Um, bicycles, uh, uh, which is very, very, uh, uh, safe for them. However, you would, again, argue that there might be some, uh, capital costs involved in it. Uh, and so should the TDM measures.