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Module 1: Gestión de demanda de viajes

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Push Measures Cases

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In this class, we will now look, give you an in-depth understanding of once one of those sets of measures, which had to call that push measures, which are the push measures. So we'll look at, uh, for, uh, specific types of, uh, push measures, uh, which are conditioned pricing, parking pricing. Vehicular restrictions and, uh, traffic coming. We'll give you an idea of what those are, and also, uh, give you the theory behind, uh, how these, uh, policies, how these, uh, measures can, uh, reduce condition. So, what is congestion pricing? Uh, condition pricing is a traffic management measure, uh, targeted or the propo, uh, targeted to, for the purpose of reducing traffic condition. So what it does is it has been used in, uh, various cities across the world. Singapore was one of the cities that have, that had implemented, uh, conditional pricing, uh, in the late seventies, I believe. Uh, so they, what it essentially tells, uh, tells you is that if you are to travel on a, on a stretcher for road, uh, during the peak period, you have to pay. Well, we use that facility. Uh, the, uh, essential part is that, uh, it tells you that the road is already congested and you are still choosing to use that road. So, uh, look at it in that, uh, in, in this point of view that, uh, if a, if a, if a glass is already full with water and you're trying to add some more water to it, it is bound to overflow. So what the same effect, uh, a new car will have. Uh, to our system, w w if it is trying to enter a system that is already congested. So by pricing, what, uh, by adding a price to that, what we are trying to, uh, achieve is that, uh, this price will act as a deterrent for this car and say that, okay, now that this, uh, road is already congested and I have to pay this much amount of money, I will no longer use my car to travel on this stretch of road. Uh, People usually, uh, if there's a good transport network, when people try to use different roads, but usually those other roads are also made, uh, their utilities are, uh, they're disutility is increased so that people don't divert using their private cars to other state networks, but rather they either shift their travel time to a different time period, or they shift their mode to what different sustainable transportation. Okay, so this, uh, again, there are different forms of conditioned pricing. The best form is that this price should be dynamic in nature. So as congestion increases, the condition cost also increases, uh, some of the cities, the easiest form is to just have a flat price on nah, uh, on congestion. So, uh, whenever you, uh, enter the CBD in the peak period, you have to pay a flat price. So that could be a flat pricing. If you use. Uh, a facility to access the CBD, uh, and that facility is getting congested, uh, dynamically. The price also might change. So there are different ways of adopting a condition pricing, but the basic theory behind it is that you, as a car driver, if you are entering a facility which is already congested, then you have to pay. Uh, this additional fee, which is the condition price, and that condition price should act as a deterrent for you to not use that for sale. So that is, uh, essentially what, uh, condition pricing means. Uh, if you look at it from the, uh, economic concept, uh, you would, uh, you would, you would see that if you low the, uh, supply and demand curves, you would see that, uh, if, if this, the red is the supply curve, Uh, uh, what essentially you are saying is that at any level of road use. And so if there are, uh, this much volume of, uh, PR vehicles on the road, everybody seems to be paying this much amount of price for using that room. It is not told yet. So what is the price that you're paying for using the road? It is maybe just the out of pocket cost of. Yeah, uh, petrol price, right? So, uh, as, as, as, as roadway, as road usage increases that price increases because it is getting congested. So your fuel efficiency is going down. So you are burning more and more fuel to use the same facility. Right? So that is what usually happens. However, there is another curve, which is not just your cost, but it is a social cost, right? So if you are driving, you are not, you think that you are paying. Uh, that trip is costing you this much amount of money, but to the society, it is costing you this much amount. It is costing the society as a whole, that much amount of money. So what is this cost to the society? Maybe you are a polluting on the road, right? So environmental cost is a, is a cost to the society. Maybe you are getting into accidents that is a cost to society, right? So these are all social costs of your travel on a facility. So what condition pricing does is it, this difference in the cost is what it charges as it toll. So this is the, he told revenue. This in yellow is essentially the toll revenue that you can generate. If you price, if you take this much amount of toll from the people who are using the road. So, this is essentially what, uh, in economic terms, uh, conditioned pricing means, uh, through, uh, uh, through the supply and demand, uh, strategy outward the supply and demand curves. You can think of it in this time. So you can visualize this in these terms. So this is the toll that agencies usually charge for using that facility, which is the difference between the cost. Uh, that you incur as a private person while driving the car versus the cost that society incurs, while you drive as a private fake, right. Ideally charging systems should vary over time, location, user type, vehicle type, et cetera. Right? You should not, uh, be charging, uh, condition pricing to work bus, for example, right. That is. Uh, that is not your intent because your intent is to attract people, to do the bus, uh, to the bus, uh, so that the space road space gets cleared up. So, uh, vehicles also different vehicle categories can have different, uh, condition pricing. Uh, if you are, uh, a person, uh, who is using your private vehicle, but you have two other people sitting with you in your private vehicle. So essentially what you are doing is you are carpooling now. So in the case of carpooling, then your conditioned pricing may be different, maybe also zero. So you may be able to use that facility, but you don't pay a charge right now. You're still using your vehicle, but because you're carpooling, you have two people, two more people sitting with you, so you don't pay any charge. Maybe if you are a motorcycle user, uh, then the condition pricing charged for you would be less because. Uh, motorcycle uses lesser space on the road as compared to her, uh, uh, four Wheeler. Right? So ideally this is how congestion pricing should be implemented. Uh, usually what people, uh, are, what agencies do is, uh, Because it is very difficult to monitor how many people are within a car. Now you have to have sophisticated it assistance in order to implement these. So what usually agencies start out yeah. Doing is just having a flat rate for any type of private vehicles. So you say that if you use your car or two Wheeler that has a, uh, license registration plate, which is, uh, private, then you will be charged a flat amount of money for say maybe a kilometer or per 10 rupees per kilometer could be a flat, uh, condition pricing chart. So people start out or agency start out with such flat prices. Then they start experimenting with it, getting more sophisticated instruments, uh, devices. And then, uh, the dynamic pricing starts. Okay. Uh, so condition, uh, type of variation in condition charge will ensure equity and fairness. So you're not charging everybody the same amount of money, uh, adjusting pricing. Uh, every 15 minutes. Uh, so that is called dynamic pricing. Like we said, uh, congestion, uh, may be the, your, uh, peak hour, maybe from 8:00 AM to 10:00 AM where you're charging a condition price, but between eight 30 and eight 45, maybe the peak within the peak. Right? So that is the time maybe when you're conditioned pricing pricing is the highest. Uh, so any people, anybody, uh, who wants to enter into the system at 8:45 AM would pay the highest price. As opposed to anybody who has already entered the system at 8:00 AM, because at that time the conditions just started and, uh, he or she has already used the system. So they'll be using it at a lower cost. Right. So as opposed to anybody, he was traveling at 7:00 AM, he does not incorrect condition pricing costs because there is no condition on the street. So it has to be dynamic in that sense that when there is no congestion, when there's free flow, uh, on your roads, You don't, you don't charge anybody. Even the private, uh, vehicle owner is not charged. Uh, whereas, uh, when congestion starts building up, that is when you start charging. So that could be, uh, the dynamic pricing sometimes, uh, uh, agencies who are, uh, who are firm believers of T a TDM. Uh, they, uh, no matter, no matter which time of the year, which time of the day, they would always charge. Some amount of money for private vehicle use, uh, along certain facilities, for example, uh, even during uncongested ours, although the price will be very less, but they would still charge it so that they try to bring about a behavioral change saying that any time of the day, you want to get out using your private vehicle. You have to pay this child. There's a huge debate of course, that we are already paying taxes, uh, on our petrol. Uh, so why do we have to pay this additional assess, uh, which is essential an additional tax as condition pricing, but the idea of, uh, this price is too, uh, not, uh, not, uh, penalize you, uh, but change your behavior by bringing in this, uh, bringing in this, uh, challenge or this says, okay, Uh, then there are different types and ways in which you can set up your condition pricing. Uh, there could be a cordon ring method. Where do you say that a fee is paid? When a vehicle crosses a cordon to enter a central area? Usually only during peak hours. So you can have a cordon like this, and if there are four or five streets that enter into this Cordele, uh, that any vehicle that is entering that cordon. Phase a feet. So that is kind of a, uh, CBD area. If you may think of it and any vehicle entering, uh, would pay the fee. So that is a cordon ring, um, method of, uh, of, uh, uh, condition pricing. There are area licenses that can be, uh, issued vehicles, purchase a day license to enter a central area. So it doesn't matter how long you enter into that area. Uh, you just pay a day pass. So you'll get a, you pay this fee, you entered into this area, and then you are traveling around as much as you, uh, as you can throughout the day. And then you come out, you don't have to, uh, pay, uh, any more, uh, in coordinating. What happens is that you are charged for, uh, a fee is paid when a vehicle crosses the cordon. Right? So you're crossing here and again, you're crossing it there. So you're call crossing the coordinate. Two different times and based on what is the difference in this time you are charged. So if you're there for a long period of time, you'll be, there'll be a longer charge, a higher charge if there, if you're there for a shorter period of time. Yeah. Shorter charge. So that is the difference between a cordon and an area type lice area license condition charge, which is just a flat rate. Uh, it could be a corridor level charge, right? Uh, vehicles using a specific road lane tunnel bridge. I charged her fee. Uh, so you would see that, uh, um, many, uh, many of the toll roads, uh, in India for example, are, uh, are charged. Are you pay a fee for using that facility, right? They are being built, uh, in a, in a PPP method where it is no longer free to use. For example, the, all of the other, uh, the older national highways and the Ivers. If you could imagine the. Uh, we would have never paid a fee to use it, but nowadays all the roads you're paying. So the road is a facility for its use. You're paying a fee, uh, then there could be other means, uh, that are used in different, uh, uh, cities in the U S which says that, uh, even in the urban area, there could be only one lane, uh, that is, uh, uh, that is it, uh, condition charge, Glen. These other lanes could be. Uh, could be, uh, freelance. So what usually is the intent is that if you want to use this lane, uh, you have to pay a fee. Uh, there are usually a lot of its devices that, uh, its devices that are put overhead, uh, that check for how many, uh, who, which are the cars that are using this. Uh, if it's a private vehicle, for example, you see this is a private vehicle that is using this lane. That means there has to be at least two or three people inside that, uh, inside that car. Uh, that means that carpooling and hence if they're carpooling, they can use this lane for free. Otherwise, if it was a private vehicle with only one person was using that, uh, lane, they have to be charged heavy. So people are, uh, Many agencies use these differently. They either set up a land-based, uh, corridor based tolling system data, set up, uh, uh, garden based tolling system, uh, area type tolling system. You can, uh, you can do, uh, whichever, uh, where you want in your, uh, in your, uh, urban area. You can even have a network-wide, uh, tolling system, uh, if you would like that. So you can compare all these, uh, this is a nice table that has been developed. Uh, to compare, uh, these different types of, uh, uh, condition, pricing, schemes, uh, what are their aims and what technologies have to put in place right now, you cannot, uh, you have to enforce these things, uh, unless, unless, uh, you enforce it. People are going to violate it. And then, uh, nobody, uh, the benefits are not going to be met. So enforcing means, uh, you can either have. Uh, manual enforcing by having a lot of police, uh, along that corridor or, uh, in that stretch. Uh, but also, uh, having a lot of, uh, technology, taking the use of technology, taking the help of technology to monitor. So, uh, this gives you an idea of, uh, what are the different technologies that are involved? Uh, uh, this is an example of, uh, uh, the London central district or Stockholm or Singapore, uh, which has implemented. Uh, a successful condition pricing, uh, in their central zones, for example. So you see there will be a boards like that, which tells you that if any time from Monday to Friday, between 7:00 AM to 6:00 PM, if you enter a, what is called a central zone, which is indicated by, uh, this circle C uh, then you have to be. Uh, being a price and this price, uh, is automatically charged, uh, using this transponders that are on your cars. And now that we are getting those fast tag, uh, uh, fast tags, uh, in our cars. So imagine that everybody has, has that fast tag and there is a transponder or transponder or receiver that, uh, catches the signal from this. Transplanter in your vehicle so that your, the toll automatically gets deducted. So that is the type of a system that is, uh, being followed in some of the cities successfully. But at the same time, there are some cities that have failed in implementing, uh, condition pricing, uh, in the, uh, in their areas due to, uh, several reasons, uh, most prominent of which is, uh, public opposition to this. Uh, especially where a lot of people use, uh, private vehicles and are habituated now to using their private vehicles, uh, in such areas to bring about this behavioral change is very, very tough. Uh, so unless again, you have to have a very good public transportation network. You have to have, uh, uh, people who are ready to, or willing to change their behavior and move to a public transportation system. That is when conditioned pricing is going to. Uh, be successful in your area. Uh, but wherever they are, it has been successful. It has actually seen a reduction in traffic volumes. Uh, so for example, here, you would see Singapore is, uh, because they have had this in place for the longest time, uh, in the world, any of the cities in the world among any of the cities in the world, it has seen a lot of almost 50% reduction in traffic volume on those streets. Right? So there is, uh, uh, uh, Uh, valid, uh, good reasons, good benefits in applying condition pricing. Uh, you cannot say that, uh, condition pricing is an extra tax on an extra burden on us. Uh, um, and, uh, it, it deters our free will of using our, uh, private vehicle. Right? Many people look at it in that way, saying that our free will is being, uh, is being choked. Uh, by these condition prices, uh, it is not, it is not that at all. Uh, when you think about Singapore, people are thriving, their businesses are thriving. Uh, it's not, uh, not like anybody, uh, uh, has been, uh, pushed towards, um, uh, this corner by condition pricing or anything like that. London is, uh, of course, one of the wealthiest cities in the country, uh, in the world. So even they have implemented conditioned pricing and seen benefits, uh, out of it. So. Uh, but however it is a behavioral change, it takes time. The other means of bringing about a travel demand management is, uh, parking pricing, similar to condition pricing, which is, uh, which may be a larger area, wide measure condition. Uh, parking pricing is, uh, uh, not providing free parking. Uh, this is, uh, currently in the urban areas providing free parking too. Uh, four wheelers is one of the biggest climbs, if you may. Uh, if you think about in that, uh, in that sense, because, uh, price of land is, uh, is, is a very high in the central business districts. And if that piece of land is given for free for a vehicle to just park, uh, it is, it is almost a criminal offense. Uh, so people are, uh, beginning to not give any free parking, uh, They may subsidize the parking and put the charge in something else. Uh, hide it in some other charge, uh, which usually is not encouraged either because then public does not pay out of pocket unless public big pays out of pocket. They don't realize the effect that, uh, the use of private vehicle is having. So if you, if you mask it under some other charge and say that, uh, parking is free, okay, I will not charge you for parking. But if you come to my movie theater, the ticket cost for the movie is going to go up by 15 rupees. So that is kind of masking, uh, your price of parking, uh, which people then don't realize is realize it as much as if you just say that. Okay. If you come in, uh, to my movie theater and want to come in your four Wheeler, And park it here. You have to pay a 52 piece for parking or something like that. So, uh, people are no longer. Our agencies are no longer willing to provide free parking, uh, and by increasing, and by increasing the pricing of parking, they are deterring people from using private vehicles. It has been researched that, uh, vehicles remain in use only 5% of the time and 95% of the time it is parked. Right. 95% of the time it is parked is either parked at your home or is it the part in the office? Uh, so most of the time during the day it is park. And if this parking is free, especially, uh, when it is out of your home, uh, then, uh, uh, it, uh, does not deter you from using your vehicle. Uh, so parking pricing are usually, uh, implemented various ways. Uh, it could be, uh, the structure should be in favor. Uh, it could be in favor of short term users, increasing price with time. So it could be a, it need not be a flat rate. Uh, it could be, you could say that if you park here, For the first 15 minutes, we'll give you free. But certainly if you keep on, keep you add your, if you keep your weekly at for any more than 15 minutes, 15 to 30 minutes, we'll charge you this much 30 to one hour charge as much. So it could be a time incremental, uh, parking pricing. Uh, it could be that, uh, uh, you could say that if you. Uh, come here and park, uh, early in the morning at 7:00 AM. So that means you are avoiding the rush hour and you're coming before the rush hour. Then I'll charge you a lower price, parking price, parking price. Whereas if you come here and park during the rush hour, then your parking charge would go up. So there are different ways of, uh, of, uh, uh, determining what the price of parking should be. Uh, uh, the price of parking is determined by doing surveys of parking capacity in occupancy time, occupancy timing, meaning how much time a car, uh, occupies a space, uh, and, uh, not only a car, but any number of cars that occupies that space. So it could be based on that. And you, you typically see such, uh, parking charts or parking boards or parking, uh, costs that are. Uh, implemented are that are shown outside, uh, uh, parking garage, for example, different tools could be, uh, used, uh, you could buy a pass, it could pay for parking for a monthly parking charge. For example, that's a past, you could have single metered parking right on street. Parking is something that is usually metered nowadays in most of the Western countries or cities in the Western countries where you, uh, uh, there is a. Uh, there is a meter you put in some coins and, uh, it shows you that this much amount of time you can park at that spot, which is on the street. Uh, and this is obviously has to be monitored. So there are different, uh, different, uh, police personnel who keep on constantly monitoring this, uh, pay and display meters. They are all similar to, uh, these things, uh, electronic paper space again, uh, in vehicle meters. Some of them some park has prepaid too. Uh, small, uh, electronic meter displayed in the vehicle when it is parked that count down the minutes. So there could be, uh, different. Uh, now there are different apps that have come out that show you where available parking spots are and what are their prices. So you can pick and choose maybe, uh, another street or two streets down the line, uh, down the road, uh, from your office space. Uh, the parking price is less. So maybe you go down two streets and. Uh, and walk down to your office from there. So you could do, uh, many of those things, obviously the manual way to have is to have an attendant, uh, take, uh, parking from you. Uh, these are some pictures. So these are the meters, uh, that I have been talking about. And these are the in vehicle meters, uh, that could be put in, in your vehicle, uh, which will, uh, tell you, give you a countdown of, uh, when your parking time is up. Uh, usually these. Uh, they have, uh, such types of, uh, uh, parking meters. They have slots to put in coins here. And for this vehicle that is parked along it, along with it, uh, uh, when, uh, when the driver gets off and puts the coins in this meter, he or she knows that, okay, I can park here for 30 minutes and I put in only 30, uh, put in only a two piece or four piece or whatever it is. So that is what, uh, these meters allow you to do. The other, uh, type of, uh, um, uh, um, push strategy that you can have is regular restrictions. Uh, you can completely restrict certain types of vehicles, uh, from certain areas during certain times of the day. Uh, for example, uh, you could, uh, some of the cities have tried to restrict, uh, motorized vehicles, uh, during weekends, uh, from. Uh, 4:00 PM to 6:00 PM, for example, are 4:00 PM to 8:00 PM on a Saturday evening. For example, in order to open up that area for completely for non-motorized traffic, uh, all the streets and cafes in those central business districts are open. They thrive. Uh, there is no pollution so people can walk around or use the bicycle and so on and so forth. So that is that those are, those are also some strategies that, again, by doing that, what is happening is you are bringing in trying to bring in a behavioral change. Remember. Uh, in the back of your mind that PDM strategies in a sense are first trying to, uh, bring in the fundamental change in your travel behavior. So there could be car-free zones, which are becoming, uh, some of the cities that are increasingly, uh, promoting these, uh, right. Uh, it is done by limiting parking, right? Sometimes you just say that no parking is available or, uh, do not provide any parking. So you will see that even Metro stations in central business district, Uh, we'll not have any parking available at the Metro stations. Uh, so it provides regular parking altogether. Uh, uh, even, uh, uh, we in India have tried this, uh, in Delhi where we have tried to restrict vehicles by, uh, having the odd and even rule. Uh, let's saying that only odd number license plate vehicles can, uh, get out on one day and even number can get out of another day. So those are also vehicular restrictions in a sense, right? Uh, some of them may have, uh, restrictions. To a entry of heavy vehicles in certain areas or during certain periods of time. Right. For example, Kolkata does not allow a have you trucks to enter, uh, during the evening peak or morning peak hours from outside the city, a city limits. So any, any trucks that are trying to enter into, uh, Kolkata, uh, have to wait for, uh, evening peak or mining peak to be over before they are let inside. So they are mostly let inside during the night time. So you would see many of the Hybris joke with, uh, trucks that are waiting to enter, uh, Kolkata during the evening or the late evening, uh, night times because, uh, heavy vehicles are restricted. So those are going to be regular restrictions, uh, or type of equal restrictions that you can put in, uh, right. There's brings in, uh, immense benefits to pedestrian cyclists. For example, like I said, on weekends, if you close it down to vehicles, Uh, you can, uh, go in that using your, uh, different NMT modes. Uh, it helps decrease in the clashes in that zone. So suddenly you make a vehicle, uh, uh, an area vehicle free, then there are no more vehicle accidents that take place and it helps, uh, improving, uh, uh, it helps in the improvement of, uh, safety brings about more safer, uh, environment and credit to popular belief. The local businesses also get benefited. So people are first, we're apprehensive that if you don't allow cars and private vehicles to come, what happens to the local business that who will come and, uh, use our business. But when you saw that, uh, when it was seen that, uh, this was well implemented, if it was implemented properly and implemented regularly, you saw that people did come. Maybe it was different type of people, but they did come there and the businesses were not affected. People came there. They. Uh, bought whatever they had to buy the purchased, whatever they had to purchase, the ate, whatever they had to eat. So there was no impact, uh, financial impact on the businesses, uh, for closing down, uh, vehicular traffic, the weekends, uh, like I said, uh, for example, New York city, uh, the, uh, uh, famous downtown Manhattan area, uh, times square was, uh, experimented has experimented with, uh, having car-free days. Uh, they have had tremendous success as well. And the last means of achieving a Trillium strategy, which is a very localized way of doing it is, is what is called traffic calming. So this is a more engineering oriented, uh, method of bringing about a reduction in, uh, uh, in the number of vehicles or especially in the speed of vehicles. So the philosophy, the theory behind it is if we've made it difficult for. Uh, vehicles to travel on a certain street by adopting certain traffic calming measures, uh, than the, uh, uh, the motorized vehicles will not have the benefit of going fast, going fast. And if they, if they don't have that benefit of moving fast, uh, then they will think that well, if I, uh, if I can't go fast using my. A motorized vehicle. What is the use? Let me just, uh, go, uh, in, in a public, uh, in a public transport, which is going to take the same amount of time maybe, or maybe just let me use my bicycle, which is going to take some amount of time. So that is the entire philosophy behind traffic calming. So what it does essentially is have various design features and strategies intended to reduce traffic volume, traffic speeds, and volumes. Right. Yeah. By reducing traffic speeds, they are trying to bring about a change in that, uh, are a reduction in that traffic volume. So these are some design features. So there are some engineering features that are involved and also obviously some strategies they can range from minor modifications of an individual street to a comprehensive redesign of the road network. You could do it at any scale. You want to do it. We want to do it only for your neighborhood. Couldn't do it for that. Or if you want to do it in for the entire network of streets in your area, you can do that as well. Uh, implemented, uh, are primarily implemented on urban streets. That's eventually in, uh, residential areas. Uh, what, some of the, uh, some of the design elements that are included are rumble strips, speed tables, raised crosswalks. She gains a tight corner, ADI. Uh, semi dye, water, pavement treatments, et cetera. So you will see how, uh, what, what we are talking about. So suddenly if you have a say, this is a neighborhood street, uh, which, uh, which is now. Uh, uh, uh, paved by paver blocks or say, uh, bricks, some, some type of bricks, uh, uh, rather than your asphalt or concrete. So what happens is now that gives you, uh, the, the ride of the vehicle is not that smooth. It gives you a bumpy. Yeah. And in addition to it, now you put your rumble strips yet. So rumble strips are nothing, but, uh, Um, speed. Hump is usually one at a time. And, uh, the rumble strips are multiple, uh, strips at a time. Uh, they have, uh, been seen to achieve greater reduction in speed than a single speed bump. So these rumble strips also allow the speed of the vehicle to reduce in, uh, in, uh, in addition to some pavement treatments. Like either you treat the pavement in this fashion or, uh, use different materials.