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Module 1: Design Guidelines for Pedestrian and Cycling Facilities

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Design of Pedestrian Infrastructure

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Let us now focus at the design of pedestrian facilities in particular. Uh, in this lecture, we will, uh, give you an overview of the D uh, design guidelines as per IRC. One zero three, published in 2012, and look at how you can design for effective, uh, sidewalk width, and also provide for seamless pedestrian travel. So what, uh, IRC one zero three, uh, tells us is that pedestrian, um, design should be as per different zones. So there is a zoning system that helps us understand or helps us design good pedestrian. Infrastructure. So what does this zoning system zoning system tells us that, uh, as a sidewalk, for example, this is the entire sidewalk, right? This sidewalk is divided into a frontage zone, a pedestrian zone and furnitures, right? So there are three different zones, frontage zone or pedestrian zone or furniture zone. And then comes to, uh, uh, then comes the right of way or the carriage way where you have maybe on-street parking and then you have lanes for, uh, vehicles to move. So what do you mean by a front end zone? Frontage frontage zone, accommodates the entrance to any person, for example, entrance to our shop. So maybe there is an entrance to a shop where there are Uh, uh, clothes hanging in the shop and that zone is called a front-end zone, which usually is anywhere between a half a meter to one meter right off your entire footpath. Next comes the furniture zone, which is on the other edge of the, uh, sidewalk in the furniture zone. All utilities like street pole sitting at Edwins, et cetera, should be provided. Right. So everybody, you have benches here. People are sitting on the benches. There is, uh, there are trees. Uh, all of those such areas should be demarcated from the actual walking zone. So the pedestrian zone, uh, IRC says or recommends that. Should be at least a minimum of 1.8 meters, but that depends upon what type of area you're in, but it says no less than 1.8 mil clear pedestrian zone, right? Oh, a front-end zone should be different and a furniture zone should be different. So that is what is called the zoning system for her foot Pandora sidewalk as pariah. So here is a good example of the effect of zoning. So this isn't unplanned picture, right? You don't know where the pedestrian zone is. You don't know where should people walk? Should people then end up walking on the carriageway or other pavement. Whereas if you have planned it in a proper manner, now you have demarcated the pedestrian zone. You have the end zone, you have your shops here. People can, uh, sit along the shops. Do their business along the shops, there is a furniture zone where all the trees are and so on and so forth. And there is a clear pedestrian zone. So this is how you should design for a sidewalk when you are looking at, uh, any urban area, uh, any urban area, uh, in India. So this is Asper IRC, all the image sources, uh, images are taken from. IPDP and IDP, usually the first to IRC. Uh, so, uh, you will see that we have interchangeably used IRC and IDP IDP. We have used for the images. Whereas IRC is the primary document that tells us what these zones are about. Now. It also says that the width of the sidewalk depends upon. Which area you are talking about or which area that again says which zone you're talking about. So when you're in a residential zone or under residential area, what IRC recommends is that you have at least 0.5 meter of your frontage, which will not in a residential area, because there are not many stores or shops or anything you don't require a whole lot of space for your front-end zone have at least 1.8 meter. Um, of pedestrian zone and then you have a furniture zone of at least one meter. So our total width of at least 3.3 meter that we are talking about, right? So when you see a very narrow foot parts, you should always question them. You should always, uh, talk to your, uh, urban local bodies and say that do not provide us anything less than 3.3 meters in front of my residence. If you really are serious about. Uh, people who would walk, right? There's no point just providing them with a 1.5 meter, uh, pedestrian zone that will not help them because then you will not have any, uh, trees alongside with all the trees will be, uh, in the middle of the pedestrian zone, which will affect your movement. And then you will not feel comfortable, uh, while walking and. Uh, that will result in you not taking very many walking trips, right? So that is what, uh, IRC says about, uh, the residential zone. Similarly for the commercial zone. What it says is that now you're fronted should be increased to at least one meter because there will be a lot of activity along your front edge. Especially because you're in a commercial zone, uh, and you are pedestrian zone should be wider as well. Now lots of people will be walking there or buying, doing their shopping, coming in and out of stores. So the pedestrian activity will be, uh, greater, hence there's a wider space required to accommodate them also, uh, a little bit wider, uh, furniture zones should also be provided now that maybe you are to provide, uh, dustbins. Uh, seating, uh, so on and so forth. So it should, there should be wider, uh, furniture zone, and a total width of at least five meter should be provided. Right? So when you go from a residential zone to a commercial zone, you'll see that your wit off your sidewalk increases from 3.32. Find it only if you have at a very high intensity commercial zone, for example, you're in the central business district. So when you are in the central business district, what happens is that your pedestrian zone increases to four meters. So you have to really provide for Y wide sidewalks so that, uh, people feel comfortable while they are walking and more and more people do actually walk rather than use their motorized two wheelers or four wheelers. Then a total width of at least 6.5 meters is recommended. So you will see that in many of the large metropolitan areas in their CVDs. You would see actually a much wider sidewalks, uh, than when compared to, uh, S uh, smaller commercial zones or even residential areas. So this type of a situation has to be a wided where you see that there is no demarcation between the pedestrian zone and the frontage zone, as well as the, uh, furniture zone. Everybody is kind of intermingling. Uh, in this area. So this causes not only, uh, congestion for the motorized vehicles, but it gives an unsafe walking and bicycling, uh, environment. And, uh, Uh, as a result, the number of people trying to walk or bicycle will always reduce. So this, this type of a situation where, uh, this, uh, total does not have any designated parking, uh, it stops anywhere. It wishes to stop all such things should be avoided, uh, as, uh, if you look at IRC and, uh, try to, uh, determine the level of service. What it also says is that, uh, our minimum clear with again, uh, I think we have already explained to you about the clear, with a minimum clear with the pedestrian access road shall be 1,220 millimeter exclusive of the, with the other curve, right? At least that much, which should be given. And then if you are, if people are walking in both directions, then if you see that we provide a minimum sidewalk with the 1.8. Your number of people. Number of people per hour should not be greater than 1350. If you want to maintain a level of service B, or if you want to maintain a level of service C you can go up to 80, 90 people per hour. If you only provide the minimum, right? The minimum is a 1.8. However, if you can go up to four meters, then you can accommodate a whole lot of people while still maintaining a level of service. B. Similarly, this, this column shows you if, uh, it's, uh, unidirectional, if it is only in one direction, then you can have even more people, right? If it's multidirectional, then, uh, remember it, uh, provides friction between, uh, people moving up and down. So the, uh, usually the flow or the capacity reduces, uh, similarly based on land use. Again, we have already seen that via pictures. What it says is that if it's residential, you have to provide at least 1.8 meter width. Again, when we are saying 1.8 meter width, remember it is the pedestrian zone that we are talking about. In addition to the pedestrian zone, you always have to have your frantic zone as well as your furniture zone. So in residential areas, minimum put part with a 1.8 meter, whereas in high commercial intensity zones, high intensity commercial zones. You have to have at least four meter off foot, but the next is, uh, once you have a catered to the width of the footpath, you also have to look at the height or the height of the curve, but the height of the footpath, see sometimes in many cities you will see that the foot part is very high when compared to the category. But what IRC says is that it should not be any more than one 50 millimeters high. This is what IRC recommends, right? What, what this, there are multiple other design failures, which we'll get to here. But what, uh, IRC says is that if you have such a high rate of footpath, what is likely to happen is that if there is a motor vehicle, That is plying on the edge of the road here that may hit this raised sidewalk. And then it may topple over into the pedestrian zone, right? If it, if it is a smaller, if it is a lower, uh, foot part, the chances of toppling of vehicles is less tons of toppling of vehicles is less, and that's why this is a much safer. Uh, sidewalk height to have the other design issues we will get to in a minute. So let us now take you to an example, determine how do you determine to, uh, in order for you to determine the width that is necessary as per the number of people or the flow of pedestrians in your areas? So say for example, there is a two meter wide. Uh, ideal footpath. I know obstructions, uh, around the transport terminal, uh, with a wall on one side and as barricaded by guard rail. On the other side, the existing peak flow rate is 1800 pedestrians, but 15 minutes you're first asked to estimate the present level of service. Secondly, what will be the widening requirement to maintain the service quality or level of service? C so. Once, you know, the present level of service, do you have to widen it to maintain a level of service? See, you are told that yes, the indoor at 2016 method. So we have already, uh, given you examples of couple of problems of how to determine level of service based on endosteum 2016. So we will use the same standard table, uh, that tells you about the different levels of service for different, uh, Land users. Right? So if you remember this, you remember the six steps of developing a level of service. The first one is identification of the land use, uh, which we are told is a terminal land use, uh, width of the sidewalk, which we have told is, uh, two meter with, uh, the next step is to determine the effective with, and if you may remember effective with this given by, uh, what all obstacles it has. Uh, on both sides. So here it has, uh, guard rails on both sides and a guardrail on one side and wall on both, uh, on the other side. So shy distance of 0.4, 2.6 meters in both cases. So in that, uh, if you just, uh, subtract the shy with a shy distance, you will get the effective with as one meter, once you know, the effective width. You're also given the pedestrian flow, uh, which is peak flow is 1800. Uh, pedestrians per 15 minute. So that will be one 20 pedestrians per minute. And for, in order to know the rate again, you, because it is only one meter effective width, so that will be the same a one 20 pedestrians, but meter per minute, now that you're know that pedestrian, Florida is one 20, um, uh, pedestrians per meter per minute, and it's a terminal, uh, land use. So for terminal land use anything. It is not even between 68 to 78. That means it falls in the category of F to the variable pedestrian florid, anything greater than 78 is a variable pedestrian florid. So you'll see that you're a pedestrian, you're a sidewalk currently is hello, service F so now the second part of the question is what do you have to do? Or how wa how much do you have to widen it by in order it, in order for it to maintain a level of service C. Right. So now in order for it to maintain a level of service C for a terminal land use, you know, that it has to fall on the floor. It has to be anywhere between 26 to 32 pedestrians per meter per minute. So if you assume, uh, let us assume on the higher end, say that we will accommodate 30 pedestrians per meter per minute. So now you know that what is the, how much should be the effective width? You already know that your, um, uh, flow Florida is this much are one 20 pedestrians per minute, one 20 pedestrians per minute, divided by the floret of the footpath, which is 30. It gives you the effective width of the sidewalk. So the effective width of the sidewalk should be four meters in order for you to maintain. Um, uh, level of service C inner terminal land use. Now, if you're, uh, if you're effective with this four meter, uh, considering a shy distance of one, so you should have at least a five meter wide foot part. So how much do you have to widen it by? You already have a two meter foot, so you have to widen it by three meters. So, this is a very easy way for you to understand what is the deficiency off your pedestrian, uh, infrastructure in your, um, uh, neighborhood in your, uh, any different types of land uses. And once you know the deficiency, you can then, uh, advise as to what can be done to overcome that deficiency. So if you see, if you, uh, if the urban local bodies now know. That well, uh, in order to maintain a level of service C, which is ideally what everybody would like to maintain it, that we would have to at least have, uh, at least widened for part by three more meters in that particular, uh, terminal landing zone so that, uh, people feel comfortable while walking. So that is a good example of how to measure what is the width that is necessary in order to. Maintain a certain level of service. Now, the other aspect that is highlighted in a IRC, one zero three is the cross slope. The cross slope is very, very essential because when SILTA accumulates after, when it may cause the sidewalks to be slippery, so puddles can cause the footpath to become slippery. So there has to be always a running slope, as well as that. Cross slope. And as per IRC, the running slope should be no more than 5% and the cross slope should be no more than 2%. So you have to ensure that your sidewalks are designed in such a manner. Next comes the surface quality, right? This is often a, are a pet peeve. When we are looking at different types of, uh, pedestrian infrastructure. Um, in our urban areas, we always many times find, uh, such a facility, which is, uh, extremely, uh, unusable, uh, for pedestrians. Uh, so, uh, it is always, uh, it is always recommended that while you are designing for pedestrian facilities, remember an empty users, we have to include, uh, you, you have to provide for universal accessibility. So you have to take into account, especially abled, uh, as well as children and elderly people. So when you are developing, uh, any surface quality, uh, you have to have your, uh, universal, a universal accessible design, and you have to make sure that there is a clear, uh, space for pedestrians to walk along the footpath, uh, surface quality. When we talk about we talk. We either look at paper tiles, sandblasted, checkered tiles are nonskid tiles. So all of this, what they allow us allow you to do is to walk on it, uh, walk on the surface, uh, without the fear of slipping. So that is one of the, uh, one of the fears while you walk on any surface, is that, uh, during vain or any other. Uh, cleaning of the surface, it should not become a slippery. So these are examples of different types of surface quality that can be, uh, provided along your, uh, Arbonne pedestrian facilities. Uh, the next, uh, most important thing is how do you deal with property entrances? Right. How do you design for property entrances in order to provide seamless pedestrian? Uh, many times, uh, you will be okay. Countering such a situation, right? So here is your right of way. Uh, here is a, uh, entrance to a residential building or to a commercial building. And so what happens is this, this foot part NCF, and again, starts back up here to provide for. Direct access to the motorcycle or to the, um, motor vehicle. Right. But this is not taking into account that there are a lot of people walking on those, uh, foot putts. So why should we not provide them with a seamless entry as well? So what essentially, sometimes what people do is they provide such kind of, uh, uh, sloping, uh, such kind of slopes. Uh, at the ad property entrances lowering the entire foot part to the level of the categories, unacceptable as property Intrinsys may become waterlogged. So this is also not right design to provide because now you are, uh, since the slope is this way and, uh, this is, uh, up slope. So there may be a lot of. Uh, water accumulation at this point. And, um, the N the property owners here would not like it instead. What has to be done is there has to be a small slope up here, uh, provided for the vehicles and also the foot should be continuous, right? The foot part should be continuous. Here. There should be a small upslope that, uh, allows people. To enter, uh, to access that, um, a home or, uh, uh, property. And in this panel, both the pedestrians and the vehicles are accommodated. So this is the right way where vehicle ramps should be provided in the furniture zone. Again, this is the furniture zone, right? There is a clear pedestrian zone. So in the furniture zone vehicle ramps are provided, which goes up and then the vehicles, uh, Can access, uh, can access the properties, keeping in mind the pedestrians walking on them. So this minimizes, this provides seamless walking, um, uh, platform for the restaurants, rather than having them get off here, then get up here and do all kinds of things. So you have to remember, keep in mind, property entrances. We want to provide that access. But we want to provide vehicular access, not at the cost of the pedestrians, walking alongside, uh, uh, on the sidewalks. We have to consider both the pedestrians as well as the vehicles while we are designing for, uh, property entrances. So here is an example, like I was talking earlier in one of the pictures, uh, not only is the height of this, uh, footpath. Um, uh, not as much design, but also several property entrances are along the way. And every time there is discontinuous sidewalk. So this people, you would often see that you'd end up with such a situation where people are walking alongside the sidewalk, because this is an uncomfortable situation where pedestrian has to get down again, get up again, get down and get up. So. There are so many breaks in the sidewalks that the pedestrian decides that I might as well just walk alongside the sidewalk and not use it at all. So such kind of design should be avoided here, again, lot of parking on the footpath, right? So you, although there is a wide footpath here, but it is completely encroached upon by, uh, parked vehicles. So this is the proper design of. Uh, for property entrances from the vehicle, from the, uh, pavement, uh, from the right of it, you have an up slope in the furniture zone, and then there is a clear pedestrian zone after the slope. The vehicle can then slowly go ahead and access this. So this, uh, I believe any of the new smart cities that are looking at, uh, developing, uh, pedestrian infrastructure are keeping this in mind while they are developing. No already, they are designing for a property entrances. Next is wending area. So when you try to provide seamless pedestrian travel vending area, all was always, almost becomes an obstacle, right? We should not, we should not now. Uh, always think that these vendors should be rehabilitated or taken away from here. Because winning is their livelihood. So when we say that they should be rehabilitated, there is the situation is very complex, uh, rather than making the situation complex and uncomfortable for the vendors, we should design in such a way that the vendors are also incorporated into your, uh, pedestrian, uh, into your foot part at the same time. You, there is a clear pedestrian walking zone as well, right? This sort of a situation where the vendors have completely encroached is not desirable. And the pedestrians then start walking on the, uh, pavement. This site is not, uh, not desirable, whereas this type of a situation where you have, um, the front end zone and you have, uh, the furniture is on here and you have a clear. Pedestrian zone or a walking space. That is something you have to be, uh, taken. Uh, you have to design for such a situation and not for such a situation. Uh, the similar things is shown in this picture as well. Vending spaces should be placed in a bulb out in the parking lane or in the furniture zone, leaving clear space for pedestrian movement, right? You can, this is if this is the furniture zone. If this is the furniture zone, you can have the, the vending zones. Right here, leaving a clear space for the pedestrians. Similarly, when you have bus shelters, right? That is a bus stop or a bus stop that has bus shelters. How do you design for a seamless pedestrian travel? If you have, uh, the bus stop right here. So if the, if the bus shelter is right here, then people who do not want to go to the bus bus shelter who are just looking to walk, pass it past it. Now do not have a clear path. It's not as seamless travel. Now they have to either they have to either get down and then get back up or. They have to be troubled by all the people that are waiting for the bus here. So it does not provide for a seamless transfer. So what, what has to be done is the bus stop is already available, but the footpath has to be extended towards the left. Now this provides a clear, a walking part for the pedestrians who do not want to access the bus stop. And also people who want to access the bus stop can now easily go here and allow clear part. So that is how, uh, seamless pedestrian travel should be insured near bus shelters. Similarly, if there is parking, uh, this is the situation when there is no on-street parking, when there is on-street parking, you are to make sure that if the bus length is such a long it's so long, you have to ensure that the bus at least has direct access to them. A bus shelter, right? If the bus does not, it cannot squeeze in to this space. Then what will happen is people will start getting off here. This is again, a pavement area and then go to the bus shelter. So nobody will be waiting at the bus shelter. Everybody will come on the pavement and start, right? So instead this sidewalk has to be now extended. The sidewalk has to be now extended outward, provide a bus shelter. It still remains a through access for pedestrians who don't want to access the bus. And then there is parking alongside, right? So this situation, see this situation is it could be a wider because the bus is not coming all the way here. Or the parking by Shelton has not been extended all the way here. Now, people are ended up on the pavement trying to use the, uh, or trying to access the bus. Instead, you should have the. Uh, garb extended outwards so that now people can directly access the bus from the sidewalk itself and not go onto them. Yeah.