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Module 1: Design Guidelines for Pedestrian and Cycling Facilities

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NMT Design Principles

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So from this lecture onwards, we'll look at the different design principles and how to design, uh, different NMT, uh, facilities, uh, in today's lecture. Uh, we will be taking you through the 10 guiding principles as well as six supportive principles. Uh, for designing non-motorized transport facilities, uh, this entire lecture is taken from, uh, the NMT guidance document that was developed by the ministry of housing and urban affairs government of India. So at the outset, we'll be looking at the 10 different principles that are listed in this document. So this is a very well compiled document that takes into consideration the Indian. Uh, environment, the Indian NMT environment and develops, uh, principles or design principles for different types of an empty infrastructure. Now they are divided into 10 basic principles are 10 guiding principles, and we look at them one by one. The first one is interconnected and empty network. Next comes complete streets, then bicycle friendliness walk-ability comfort. Universal accessibility, safety, security, and empty wayfinding, and finally protection from encroachment. So when you are designing any NMT facility or any NMT infrastructure, you have to keep in mind these 10 guiding principles. If you keep in mind them, all of these 10, then you are essentially designing a good and empty facility. Now getting into the first one, which is the interconnected LMT network. If you often ask a pedestrian or a bicyclist, why we don't often walk or bicycle, one of the reasons they will tell, you know, let you know is that, uh, there is interrupted facilities everywhere. It is not, there is not a continuous for example, and not a continuous sidewalk available from here to where I'm trying to go or. Hmm, the, um, roads that are connected from, uh, my auditory, my destination are not suitable for bicycling. So what they're meaning to say is that if you provide me a continuous interconnected network, then I would be more likely to walk or bicycle or use some other forms of non-motorized transport. So this is, this is logical because when we are otherwise traveling, using regular modes, we always have a continuum. It was a good pavement, right? We always have a good pavement, but whenever there are lots of potholes in the pavement or, uh, you have some kind of picture road coming in between and the road is not paved, then you feel uncomfortable, right. Even while driving, you feel uncomfortable, you feel that well, I should not take this route again. I should take some other routes. So same is the case for an empty infrastructure as well. So when you're trying to walk from your home to the nearest, uh, bank, and you see that, uh, that is a foot park near your house, but as soon as you reach closer to the bank, the foot part disappears, right? And that, that is discontinuous infrastructure that is not interconnected network. So if you have such kind of distance, continuous, uh, networks, then people will not walk or bicycle or use any of that. For himself non-motorized transport. So what is usually the border? A guidance document tells us that when you are designing for vehicle traffic, that should be more at the periphery of your block. Whereas inside the blocks, you should have well-connected and empty infrastructure, right? So preference should be given to NMT infrastructure within. Uh, block area. Whereas in the periphery, you can have reference to the regular traffic. If you design your streets in this fashion, this will encourage a lot of NMT movements. Okay. Especially if we should avoid tools for an empty infrastructure, right? Since you are to walk or bicycle, that takes a lot of physical activity or physical energy out of it. Uh, people, uh, tried to use them. We should always try to provide them a direct connection rather than a depo. Right? If a vehicle you can easily provide a detour, which only will take, uh, uh, a little bit extra fuel, but in case of, and an empty infrastructure, if you provide, if the person has to go from point a to point B and you don't provide this infrastructure of rather you provide one that takes a detour like this. He, or she may not end up taking an empty infrastructure, uh, or may not take, uh, a non-motorized form of transport. And then would rather just take a two Wheeler or a motorized too. We live in . So it is always good to avoid any details and provide direct. Correct. Okay. So that is the first principle you have to have interconnected and empty network. Next is the principle of complete streets. So whenever you are designing the street, you have to keep in mind that the street should be designed for all modes of transport, including non-motorized transport. So even when you're designing a main street, right example, this is an example of her main street. That is a cross section of her main street, which is as a 36 meter. Right. So even when you're designing a menu street like this, you have to keep in mind that on both ends of this street, there should be, there should be provision given to bicycles. There should be provision given to foot part should have some parking, should have a green infrastructure. So all this should be included along with your Kara is we on both sides and most, uh, probably, uh, uh, rapid transit of some sort in the medium, in the median of the road. Right. So whenever, even when you are designing, uh, the, uh, arterial in your, uh, urban area, You should keep in mind that you should design it for all modes. That is what is called complete streets, designed and operated to enable safe access of all users. You can no longer provide or develop urban streets or Bernard arterials, or even local streets without keeping in mind there and empty. People are on the NMT users. You have to keep them in mind. This promotes equitable allocation of right-of-way. And there is a balance of between the movement of pedestrians, cyclists, transited, motorized vehicles. So you should provide that balance. If you do not provide the infrastructure, not provide interconnected infrastructure for an empty, the likelihood of people traveling by an empty module, reduce. And then again, we'll have the same issues that we have with regular transport. Of emissions and condition and so on and so forth. So remember the second guiding principle is complete streets. The third one is looking at how streets can be bicycle friendly. Now it is very important to understand too, that to promote an empty, uh, and different forms of non-motorized transport in the urban area, you have to design the facilities. In such a way that they are friendly to those users do not have bicycle tracks on each side of the roads. Then you should ensure that the pavement, the category itself is designed in such a manner that it makes the bicycle users feel safe. And if they feel safe, then they would ride it. A whole lot. So provide bike lanes, bike routes, and secure bike parking to make bicycle easy option. The other thing in our urban areas is parking. Parking is a big issue, right? We do not have good parking facilities wherever we want to park. There are motorized vehicle to Wheeler or even bicycle. We not have good parking spaces. So we have to provide good parking spaces along with bicycle lanes and routes that encourage. People do bicycle. You will also see that now in order to encourage bicycle, there are many, uh, corporate offices that provide, uh, locker and shower facilities. So if you, if they have employees that are, uh, bicycle bicycling to office, uh, from a long way away, then they provide them a good locker facilities and sharp facilities so that if the sweat along their way, they can come in. Take a shower in the office and 10 into a proper office, uh, uh, clothing. So that also is bicycle friendliness, so that encourages people to bicycle to work, right? So that will encourage active lifestyle, health benefits, and a sustainable alternative to motorized transport. Bicycling has several health benefits. As you may imagine, it is the physical activity levels of physical activity. And that helps in reducing a lot of, uh, uh, um, uh, diseases, uh, B uh, uh, cholesterol increased high cholesterol or blood pressure or sore and so forth. Right. And that, lastly, it also provides the vital first mile and last mile connectivity to public transit systems. So when you're trying to encourage people to use public transit systems bicycle, Uh, bicycle access to public transport stations is also very, very important because now if you have good bicycle parking, say for example, at a Metro stop, then people will just use your, use their bicycle. Come there, park it, and then use your, uh, use the Metro. Uh, some of the Metro systems around the world also allow, uh, certain types of bicycles to be taken along with them, uh, on the Metro during certain hours of the day. So that even that is, uh, that is, uh, uh, that is called multimodal transport. Now you can allow different modes to coexist with each other so that now, if it's a non peak hour, the traveler can just take the bicycle onto the Metro. So, uh, Metro rail, uh, go to their destination. I can take it out and bicycle on it. So you can have that sort of facility as well, but at least bare minimum have good connectivity from. Uh, the catchment area of a Metro station or a bus station or a BRT station to the, uh, to access the Metro rails or BRTs, and then have a test, could parking this so that they can, uh, comment avail of the mass rapid transit or public transportation in your city. So bicycle friendliness is the third principle that has to be kept in mind when you are designing for an empty infrastructure. The fourth principle is walkability, right? Walkability is defined more by the quality of the place than by any transport related metric. So although we call pedestrian transport, we also use it as a use the frame. We use the phrase pedestrian transport, but when we are talking about people walking or the walkability, uh, office space, we are looking at more than just the transportation expert. We are looking at the environment that is. Around the public, uh, around her, but Christian's a good environment, a good safe environment, encourages people to walk and helps, uh, increases, uh, the, um, NMT, uh, usage of, uh, uh, non-motorized usage. Right? So attractive pedestrian environment with high levels of, uh, high level of priority safety and amenities. You have to have the environment conducive to pedestrians. You have to have a lot of, uh, shared cover. A lot of trees, a fortnight. You have to have a lot of, uh, lighting, uh, the space given for people to walk has to be comfortable so that they are not, uh, rubbing their shoulders against each other so that all of these things put together is known as the walking environment. So you have to make sure that the environment. Given to the pedestrians is such that it encourages people to walk. So this is, uh, a rendering of a town center in Bhubaneswar. Uh, but when I show it is one of the smart cities, sorry, as bonus, what is one of the smart cities? So they are planning to have their town center remodeled or redesigned in such a way that it encourages a lot of pedestrian activity. Another aspect of improving walkability is to have. Compact development patterns with a good mix of land users and active frontage. So what we mean by active frontage is that if you make the buildings, uh, the front end, the front entrance of the building adjacent to the pedestrians, then they are encouraged that the safety levels also goes up. Uh, instead of, instead of that, if you have, for example, regular parking in front of a building, and then you have. So you have regular parking here and then you have pedestrians. So then people are unable to see when they're walking, they're unable to see what is in the building there. So what people like, especially in commercial areas is to kind of feel that there is somebody right next to them while you are walking. So if these buildings, the frontage of the buildings are, uh, are in such a manner that they make the pedestrians walking along, alongside them feel safe, then that is. Something that, uh, encourages more pedestrian activity. So you always try to avoid parking in front of the building. So you can have parking behind the building. There'll be a, not discouraging parking altogether, but have parking behind the building and have your, uh, pedestrian, uh, um, foot part, or your pedestrian sidewalk right up to the front of the building. Compact development allows different types of land uses to be close to each other. If the distances are close to each other, then, uh, people are more and more encouraged to walk. Uh, similarly, if there are good mixes of land users, people can go from one place to the other in a short walking distances. So in order to encourage ability, you have to have the environment which, which is conducive to walking. So. You have to provide the environment. And we have looked at what are all the elements involved in providing the environment? The next thing is, or the next design principle is comfort. Whenever it comes to, uh, an empty, uh, my facilities are designed of an empty facilities. Comfort is one of the most important things that. Uh, users always one, right? So whenever you ask somebody, uh, why don't you, why aren't you walking to your, uh, bank, which is only 200 meters away, they would say it is too hot to walk or, uh, is raining. So we cannot walk. Our, the foot part is broken, so we cannot walk. So it is always the level of comfort. All of these are pointing towards the level of comfort of the users. So if you want to encourage. More pedestrian activity or more NMT activity. You have to somehow quantify this a level of comfort, right? Comfort is a, is a feeling. It is very qualitative. You cannot, uh, my comfort level, maybe different from your comfort level. So, but there has to be, if you try to quantify it in certain manner, you can do so. And then, and, and then, uh, set a threshold for. That that, uh, measure of comfort and make sure that you provide that. So provide shade, weather protection, pedestrian amenities, visual interest, all of this improves the desirability of walking and also a pedestrian and also cycling activity, bicycling activity. Right? So if you are providing, uh, some benches alongside, uh, say a commercial. Uh, commercial area where, uh, people can just walk alongside, um, window shop or do whatever they want to do. Or maybe there's a cafeteria where they want to sit and have a cup of coffee. So all of this encourages or provides comfort, uh, to the pedestrian. And then he, or she would like to. Uh, like to, uh, walk or use bicycle, uh, it shortens the perception of distance. So if you make something very comfortable, people will not think that, uh, it is too arduous to walk artists too far away. Uh, suddenly they have too many things to do along the way, too many things to see along the way. And, uh, the perception of distance then shortens right. Then it feels like, Oh, it is just a small distance away. Or it's just a five minute walk away. Uh, so, uh, give, providing them comfort always is, uh, shortening that perception of distance. Thirdly, it creates a high quality public realm with essential amenities, such as toilets, dust Benson street, which is all of this put together. Not only provides the environment for walking and bicycling, but it also enhances comfort levels just as we have to ensure the comfort level of a motorist while he or she is driving his car. A personal vehicle or a two Wheeler in the same manner we have to cater to the comfort levels of the pedestrians or the bicyclists when he or she is, uh, using their bicycle or walking along the, uh, along a sidewalk or a footprint that it is no point, uh, having, uh, uh, asking everybody to walk, uh, and encouraging everybody to walk, but not providing with. Uh, providing them with comfortable infrastructure or comfortable facilities. You have to take that into account. Right? For example, when you are, uh, driving your two Wheeler, uh, nobody likes too many potholes, right? It is very uncomfortable. Nobody likes too many, uh, speed humps. That is also very uncomfortable. Right. But so similarly, when you're taking care of the comfort of the people writing, you're writing your vehicles, you also have to take into account. Uh, the comfort levels of the NMT users. When we go ahead, the sixth principle, which is a very essential principle is universal accessibility. When we are designing for an empty infrastructure, we have to keep in mind that we are trying to design for all types of Users who come under the ambit of non-motorized transport users, right. That include people with, uh, disabilities, especially abled people, uh, small children, elderly people. So all of them combined, uh, are categorized as non-motorized transport users. So, uh, here is an example of a wheelchair accessible road. Uh, road crossing in Singapore. Right? So for if somebody is trying to cross from here to here, so these are, there are no, there are ramps made in such a manner that he or she may be able to use. The wheelchair to cross even this, this sort of data, uh, tile, um, uh, floating is, uh, ensures that, uh, for example, a blind person understands where he or she is walking. So universal accessibility simplifies navigation and reduces physical effort. When we are talking about an empty users, we have to always realize that there's a level of effort that goes into walking or bicycling physical effort. So we have to always try to minimize that physical effort, physically handicapped person should be able to navigate without pedestrian facility, uh, navigate the pedestrian facilities without external assistance. So that should be our goal. Our goal should not be that a especially able person will always have somebody, uh, helping him or her. Uh, he or she should be able to. Uh, navigate through these facilities by themselves. So that should be our aim while you're designing these and empty facilities. That is why you would see a lot of, uh, a lot of, uh, design currently are barrier free designs, right? Is a barrier free, meaning that it has no barriers to all. It provides no barriers to, uh, any type of an empty users. Any user can use the, so you will see even when you are, uh, coming across, uh, the entrance of a building, uh, in the past used to have maybe only steps to the entrance, but now also you have to have a ramp access to the building. So that is an example of a barrier free building. So similarly, when you are on a sidewalk, you have to have the ramps at the intersections so that people can easily go up and down there. Uh, sidewalk at the intersections and not have to, uh, jump on top of it or off of it. Right? Usually, uh, people can easily go down the AMSTAR slope. So universal accessibility is something that is very, very essential in case of non-motorized transport infrastructure design. The next one and a crucial one is safety. You have to have your, uh, facilities designed in such a way that they, the users feel safe while using such a facility. So, uh, say for example, you have, uh, such a large intersection, right? So this is a example of a, again, a conceptual view of the nature of master plan. So if you have a very large intersection where you expect people to cross from here to there and from there to there to there. So you have to have proper safe infrastructure that would allow them to do so. Right. You have to have a median, a median refuge Island, because there are. I think, uh, two lanes here and another two lanes here. So you cannot expect a person, a bicyclist pedestrian to cross at one goal. So you have to have a refuge Island. You have to extend, provide curb extensions so that this distance that they are crossing reduces that you have to extend your curb. So that the right of way a carriageway reduces at the intersection and this distance is shorter. For the pedestrian or the bicyclist to cross. So all of this included, uh, what, uh, includes the aspects of safety when you are providing for, uh, signals at the intersection, you have to make sure that there is a, uh, an empty phase, right? In many such large interest intersections, you would see, uh, is in some of the modern intersections, you will see that there is a all red phase. The all red phase allows people to crisscross and cross in any direction that they want to cross in. So if somebody is crossing from one and wants to go to a four, he or she need not take this route, he can, he or she can now take the direct route here. So what the signals, the signals are designed in such a way that it provides. An all red phase. So it is red for, uh, this approach, this approach, this approach, uh, this approach and this approach so that the pedestrians can cross in a criss-cross manner as well. Uh, and all the vehicles and all the legs of the intersection are. Um, uh, uh, seeing red that stop. So you will see such kind of, uh, pedestrian simulation also, especially in case of large intersections, where there is a lot of pedestrian movement happening. So all of this comes under the realm of safety. So all of these aspects should be taken into account when you are trying to design for it. Um, for, uh, any kind of NMT infrastructure, uh, physical or, uh, um, visible buffer between motorized and non-motorized vehicles, right? Uh, any kind of buffer it made, uh, it may be a tree buffer, or it may be on-street parking that provides a buffer, such buffers also help, uh, the movement of non-motorized users. Okay. Moving ahead, closely with the safety. The other aspect is security, uh, security of vulnerable groups, such as women and children. The public realm, uh, should be insured. Uh, nowadays you would see that there's a large presence of C uh, C public CCTV cameras, uh, along streets. Uh, also, uh, the provision of proper lighting. Uh, during evenings and nights is very essential in order to, uh, help people feel secure while they are walking, especially, uh, we went an elderly people and children. So a security has to be, um, uh, it has to be paramount while you're designing for them. Uh, there is also crime prevention through environmental design, uh, w which discourages criminal behavior to urban design principles. So you can. Do so by having small lights alongside the walls, as well, along with the, your, uh, uh, facade of your building as well. So there are design principles and design principles that integrate security into them and natural surveillance, obviously that we talked about. So all of these principles, uh, ensure that people feel secure while they're using non-motorized transport as well. Right. Large windows at upper levels, promote casual supervision of the street. Anybody sitting on the, uh, the second floor can just have a look on the street that gives a sense of security, right? Clearly defined public and private space, a clear building site. So all of this gives them a sense of security. So while you're designing again, safety is one thing. Security is another thing. Both of them have to be taken into consideration. While developing an empty infrastructure. Uh, the ninth one is wayfinding so often. Uh, we have street signs, uh, which again are geared towards, uh, motorized, uh, users. Right. Uh, so, uh, for a non-motorized trial, pedestrian, uh, it is, uh, no, uh, use. Uh, for him or her to see a sign that says, uh, the destination is 10 kilometers away because that doesn't make him or her, uh, is not useful for him or her because, uh, they're not going to walk for 10 kilometers. So when, when people are walking for shorter distances, You have to have, uh, maybe, uh, we finding, uh, at a very local level, right? Maybe the, uh, at the street level, uh, for example, you have to have such boards, uh, at the street level telling them if you go this side, the post office will be this site. For example, if you go this side, uh, the school will be on, on this side, which is a five minute walk away. So in terms of time, if you give a wayfinding in terms of time, that helps. Uh, pedestrians or bicyclists, um, rather than giving it in the form of a distance, right time always, uh, the perception of distance reduces if you give it a time metric. So, uh, we finding, uh, we finding has to be. Easy and legible, right? Uh, there should be in multiple languages, maybe, uh, people, uh, and, and way finding should be in the form that people, uh, who are walking both our local, as well as our, maybe from out of. That region both for both of them, it should be easy to understand. Right. Uh, I may know where the local temple is because I stayed there, but somebody who is coming from out of town or from another neighborhood may not know where the local templates. So just to say that the temple is that way may not help him or her. So you have to give them a better navigate, a better navigation so that they can walk. Uh, this definitely. Uh, promotes tourism. So whenever you go to a tourist spot, you may have, uh, uh, many of them have a walking tour, right? So you should, uh, keep an eye and see how during the walking tour, there are good legible and empty way finding or walking way, finding. They tell you exactly how to get from point a to point B, which encourages people do walk. So that is very essential as well. Lastly protection from encroachment, right? This is one of them, uh, biggest things that, uh, uh, we as Indians face, uh, alongside our, uh, um, foot parts, especially in a, um, in the busy commercial areas, as well as sometimes, you know, uh, residential areas, uh, people either, uh, part that four wheelers or two wheelers on the. Uh, on the foot path or there are vendors who are encroaching upon the foot part. So you hardly have any space to walk on that footpath. So rather than, uh, so, uh, rather than, uh, uh, uh, fighting with the vendors, for example, to move away from there, if we provide them. A proper space for vending and incorporate that into your design that will help you, uh, that will help in the, uh, walkability or, uh, that will help in the, um, uh, help promote, uh, an empty usage, uh, for, uh, also parking. If you just have proper parking areas for vehicles to park, uh, they would not, I'm sure would not park. Along on the foot part and, uh, encroach upon the foot part. So all of these have to be taken into account. Of course there has to be, uh, effective enforcement. Uh, so all of these regulations and rules should be known to everybody where the parking spots are, where the vendor areas are so that they are, uh, they are only utilizing such spaces. So those were all the 10 guiding principles. That, uh, should be used while you are designing, uh, an empty facility now supportive of those guiding principles. There are six things that one has to keep in mind. These are supportive principals, right? The first thing you have to keep in mind, the informal sector, you have to make sure that you have mixed usage. Mixed land use alongside, uh, to promote NMT infrastructure, make sure transit is given priority in, in those areas where you are providing an empty infrastructure, effective parking management has to be there. This will, uh, this will ensure that there is support to the bicycle industry and also will give rise to the culture of bicycling. Right? These are supportive principals. In addition to the 10 guiding principles that you should keep in mind while you are developing an empty infrastructure. If we quickly look at them informal sector, right? Informal sector will always be present alongside the foot parts. But if you ensure that they be present, uh, within a certain distance and still leaving a clear path for the pedestrians to walk, that that will, uh, in corporate boat. Uh, the vendors as well as the pedestrians, rather than making them, uh, encroach upon the entire footpath, we should give them a designated space mixed use a diverse mix of a diverse mix and complimentary land uses in compact pattern allows residents and workers to walk to work or shop rather than driving for all of their needs. Right? If you have a park, but if you have, if you have a park here, You have your residences here, you have your offices here. You have an open Plaza with lots of restaurants here. You have, uh, uh, sporting a tennis court here. So all of the, this is a complete mixed use area. So if you have such areas, people will obviously, uh, whoever lives here, we'll just walk to the restaurant here or walk to the tennis court here. Or just walk to work from home. So all that this will be within the walking distance as this, this encourages, uh, an empty, uh, usage, transit clarity. We have, you already looked at it and empty provides the very crucial first mile, last mile connectivity. So whenever you are prioritizing transit, Uh, you have to make sure that you provide for an empty infrastructure or vice versa when you provide there. When you see that there's a lot of NMT users around, uh, in a certain area, you might as well give priority to transit usage because these people who are using an empty, they would end up using public transport for the longer haul. Right. Uh, parking management. We have also briefly looked at that. Uh, if you provide on-street parking that provides natural buffer to the pedestrians from the traffic. So that is always, uh, encouraged. But the main point is you have to have proper designated spots for parking, and there has to be enforcement where people are not parking at the right spots. So you have to take that into consideration as well. Uh, it has been noticed that bicycle industry, uh, gets benefited a whole lot when you design for good bicycle facilities, good and empty facilities on the roads. Uh, bicycle industry, uh, can be supported, uh, just by encouraging and providing these faclities.