Loading

Module 1: Pedestrian and Bicycle Level of Services

Apuntes
Study Reminders
Support
Text Version

HCM Methodology for PLOS Intersection and Links

Set your study reminders

We will email you at these times to remind you to study.
  • Monday

    -

    7am

    +

    Tuesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Wednesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Thursday

    -

    7am

    +

    Friday

    -

    7am

    +

    Saturday

    -

    7am

    +

    Sunday

    -

    7am

    +

In today's lecture, We are going to look, give you an understanding of how to develop a pedestrian level of service for the various links intersections, uh, along us urban street. Okay. So we're going to look at an urban street, look at what are the functional elements in the street, and then, uh, give you an interest, uh, give you an idea about. How to develop a pedestrian level of service for the intersection and the links. This is based on the highway capacity manual, uh, 2010 version, uh, developed in the United States, uh, such, uh, metrology can also be now adopted, uh, for the Indian situation. Uh, however, if you understand what is involved in the current methodology, yeah. You will be in a better place to adopt it. Uh, so this is just a basic overview of the highway capacity manual, which was, uh, published by the transportation research board of the us national Academy of sciences. Uh, it has had, uh, several versions so far, uh, but, uh, it is very, it has been very widely used in the field of, uh, vehicular transport, however, uh, in the last couple of, uh, versions or additions, uh, they have developed a multimodal analysis. Uh, they have included a pedestrian levels of service, what qualitative and quantitative. So, uh, this is what, uh, we are going to look at, uh, when we are looking at this lecture and also, uh, some of the following lectures. Uh, so when we are talking, I think about pedestrian level of service, even in the, uh, highway capacity manual, uh, it is based on the Landis method. Uh, which we have already introduced to you. Uh, it says that the user's perception is influenced by both the roadway and the traffic characteristics. Your roadway characteristics include the built walking environment, sidewalk, design infrastructure, and the physical components. Whereas the traffic characteristics include the Flew off pedestrian and vehicular traffic on the road. So overall, if you look at, uh, what form, uh, or what, uh, equation, if you think about it in that terms, uh, how do you determine pedestrian, uh, level of service or score? It is, it is a function of the built environment factors, right? Plus, uh, some sort of, uh, additive function. Uh, off, uh, another function of flow characteristics, and then you always have a, uh, constant, uh, or the unexplained part of the equation, right? So, eh, at a grass level, it is there a submission of the functions of a function of built-in when factors and the flow characteristic factors. And this is essentially what the diagram is also telling you. So in this analysis, uh, what has done is, uh, the entire, uh, analysis segment is divided up into separate separate units, right? That are formally four units of analysis. Each of which receives that BLOS score. Right. So each of which receives a score and then that score is converted into a scale of a, B, C, D, E, to give you the pedestrian level of service. So what are these four formal units? The first unit is the intersection, right? So the intersection is there a crossing off any street? So if you look at this, this is will be D. Intersection. So that is the first unit. The second is a link. So a link is nothing, but the distance, this, this one link can span more than one block. If the intersection is not signalized or whether regular traffic does not stop. So here, the link is the distance between these two streets. So that indicates that there must be. Uh, signal at these two, uh, junctions. And that's why this is being considered as it, if there was no signal at this junction. So the link would then be the entire distance between these two. Okay. So that is essentially the understanding of it. So just remember again, the link does not include the intersection. If it ha it is signalized. However, if it is not signalized, if it is N non signalized, then it will also include the intersection as well. Okay. So that is how a intersection under link is described. The next unit of analysis is what is called the segment. Now what is a segment segment combines a links course and the downstream boundary of the intersection scores. Now the segment is a combination of a link and then intersection. Okay. So this entire thing is called her second. So when we are developing a pedestrian level of service score for a segment, it will include the pedestrian level of service score for the intersection, as well as that pedestrian level of service score of the link. So that is what essentially. Uh, segment means. And then the final unit of analysis is the facility in itself. So the facility, when we talk about the facility, we talk about the entire stretch now. Okay. So we are talking about the entire stretch, the length weighted averages of the segment scores. So when we are developing a pedestrian level of service, PLR score for her facility. So when we were developing this for a facility, what we are doing is we are. Uh, doing a submission offer, linked weighted averages of the segment scores. Now we know the segment scores, which consists of the scores of an intersection as well as a link. Now the, uh, facility we'll have the length weighted averages of each of these segments. Okay. So that essentially. Water facility or how however BLOS score for that facility is developed. So now let us start one by one with, uh, the all showing you all different, uh, four formats of, uh, uh, units of analysis and start with the smallest, uh, unit of analysis, which is the intersection. Uh, before we do that, uh, let us just, uh, uh, uh, tell you that the segment and facility scores are always on each side of the street. Right. So remember, uh, if, uh, there are, uh, facilities, walking facilities on both sides of the street, then the segment and facility scores are different for different sites. So that means that, uh, there may be a one road which has two pedestrian facilities, uh, up and downstream, uh, um, or up and down. However, it is not just enough to develop the level of service. For only one site. So this is one foot part and this the other foot part. So then each of these will have, but the PLR score has to be developed differently when you're looking at a segment PLR score under facility, peer score. Okay. And the limit of period of time of study is limited to one hour. So when we are developing with, or when we are looking for the flow and, um, uh, speed and density of how people are walking, are we limited to one hour, um, time periods, because it has been observed that, uh, the pedestrian flows very, uh, A greatly from hour to hour. So we just keep it, uh, uh, uh, keep it down to one hour. And then what usually happens, like we said, this, uh, you get a score for each, either the intersection or the link or the segment or the facility you'll get different scores. And those scores are then scaled into different grades, which gives you the pedestrian level of service. So these are the pedestrian level of service scores. And which are converted into a pedestrian level of service. Great. Okay. That is how, you know, how well your facility or your intersection is working. Remember level of service or pedestrian level of service is a performance measure, which allows you to, uh, gauge or understand how well your facilities, uh, performing as per D. Stated objectives or functions, right? If the function of the facility is to, uh, provide, uh, mobility to be a route to pedestrians, then how well is it providing mobility? Or if the function is to provide safe crossing of pedestrians, how well is it, but esteem and or the pedestrian crossing providing it. So that is what, any level of service in this case, pedestrian level of service measures. So, if you look at, uh, if you start looking at the intersection, uh, all of this may seem very daunting, uh, these equations and, uh, for the equations, but they are very simple and we'll look at it, uh, one by one. So if you just look at each intersection, uh, if you look at a snapshot of an intersection, so you would always, uh, have an intersection wetter major street. Uh, across the set minor street. Right? So if this is a major street and if this is the minor street and they are all intersecting, both of them have sidewalks, right? So, you know, what is the, or what is the width of the crosswalk? How much you have, what is the width of the sidewalk? All of these are measurable. So what this highway capacity manual tells you that the intersection pedestrian level of service score is, eh, is given by a. Formula or a model or linear regression equation, which is a function of these four different elements. Now what we'll look at these four different elements are again, further given by certain standard formulas and these all formulas, uh, the input to these farmers have to be collected on the street. So for the particular intersection, for which you want to develop a pedestrian level of service, you have to always capture certain amount of data. That data, if you put it in this equation or in this model, it will give you a better skill level of service score for that particular intersection. Okay. Now let us look into what maybe Julie, all of these four elements are. So the first element. Which is FW is the factor of the, which is a factor, which denotes the road crossing width. Okay. So the width of the road that you will be crossing. Okay. Remember crosswalks on both sides, right? You, if you are here, you may be wanting to cross either district or district. So the width of the cross, the road you're crossing, right? If you're crossing this road, what is the width? The crossing this road, what is the weight? So that is a factor. So if the weight, if the weight is small, your Palestinian, uh, level of service score will be different. Whereas if the bit is large, the pedestrian level of score may be different. So that is a factor that controls that pedestrian level of service score. The next one is the volume of the vehicles on the street. The crosswalk is located. So this is a factor that governs the volume of the streets. Now. If you're trying to cross this way, what is the volume? If you're trying to cross this way, what is the volume of the traffic on this road versus if you're trying to cross this way, what is the volume of the traffic on this road? Right. So that governs what the, again, what the level of operational level of service score of the intersection is the third one is the speed of the vehicles on the street, on which. The crosswalk is located. So you have to not only calculate the width of that road, the volume of vehicles on that road, but you also have to know her speed on that speed of vehicles on that road. And the finally the fourth one is if there is a pedestrian signal, right? If in case there is a pedestrian signal. So what is the delay? Off for off to the pedestrians due to these signals. Um, I mean, not only pedestrian signals, if it is a signalized intersections. So if the pedestrians have to wait there, uh, due to the presence of a signal, then how, what is the delay that the pedestrians face? Again, this delay is due to signal at the intersection, not only a pedestrian signal, but. A regular regular signal as well. So what is the delay that is incurred or faced by the pedestrians at that intersection? Okay. Clear. So the pedestrian level of score depends upon four factors. The first factor is the width to the sidewalk, orbit to the crosswalk or the wit to the road, which you are trying to cross. Right. So went to the road that you're trying to cross this way. First factor, second factor, the volume of vehicles that are on that road that you're trying to cross. Third factor the speed of the vehicles along that road that you're trying to cross. And finally, the last factor is if it is a signalized intersection, if there is a signal at that intersection, then the delay faced by the pedestrians because of the signal. Okay. Because of the signal. So those are the four factors that determine the pedestrian level of service score at a signalized intersection. No. Furthermore, if you break it down for each of these factors, you'll see that the wit factor only depends upon the number of lanes crossed at the crosswalk. It only, it is a function of, so, uh, it is 0.6, eight one times ended to the par 0.514, six, empirical, uh, uh, empirical, uh, uh, equation and particular format. Uh, where it is only dependent upon empirical formula, where it's only dependent upon the number of links you've crossed. So if you know the number of lanes, we just plug in the number of lanes here and you get the factor of FW. Whereas if you want to know the volume, you want to know the volume of, uh, the vehicles that are crossing, uh, that are on that road. What you have to do is you have to measure. Two times. Okay. The sum of the turning volumes left or from right coincident with the walk phase, but 15 minutes is coincident with the walk phase. So when you are you all, sometimes you always have signals where the vehicles are also moving and you also have a green for pedestrians, right? So that vehicle, that volume of vehicles. So for example, if I draw an intersection. Uh, if I draw an intersection, um, let me draw another one for draw this intersection and you are waiting here and you are wanting to cross this road. Okay. So what is, what happens is you have left turning vehicles. You were wanting to cross here, you have left turning vehicles and also you will have some right turning vehicles, which are coming here. So the volume of these right turning vehicles, plus the volume of these left 20 vehicles will affect how you will cross, right? So that is essentially the volume that you have to calculate in order to determine. So if you know the volume, you just added you by four multiplied by that factor, and you will get the first element in FW. The other elements in F w R N, which is the number of right turn. Channelized islands in the crosswalk. Now, if there are any channelized islands, you just have to count the number of channelized islands. It's as simple as one or two, most likely there are never more than one or two channelize islands. And the smaller end gives you the volume of the vehicles per lane, but 15 minutes. So if you know the volume of the vehicles per lane, but 15 minutes, you just multiply that factor by that, uh, multiply that by this factor. And multiplied by the number of generalized links. This entire thing will now give you a D F V volume or the factor factor, which determines the volume of vehicles that are on the road that you're trying to cross. Okay. So now, you know, F w you know, V finally, you also have to calculate F S. Right. You want to know the speed? You want to know the speed of the vehicles on the road that you're trying to cross. So when you want to know the speed of the vehicles, you have to know the volume, which I've already calculated. Right? You have calculated the volume for, uh, the 15 minute period. Along with that, you have to calculate what is called the 85th percentile speed. So in order to just calculate the 85th percentile speed. It is nothing but the speed that 85% of the drivers will drive at or below under free-flowing conditions. You just develop a cumulative frequency curve of the volume of the vehicle count and the speed. Right? So if you just do a cumulative frequency and at the 85th percentile, but rather, uh, at the 85th percentile, if you draw the, um, speed. Uh, if you've got, if you've, uh, uh, extends the 85th percentile speed and look at the x-axis, you will know what is the speed of the vehicles at which 85% of the vehicles are moving. Right? That is the speed we want to know. Usually, uh, we don't, we don't help the mean speed because it has been, uh, found out that 85% of the speed is a safe, uh, speed to assume that. That many people not be. Number of vehicles are moving at that speed. So you want to determine the 85th percentile speed. So once you know, the 85th percentile speed of the regular stream, you just multiply that with the volume and the factor you will be. You will have the, uh, factor F S now, you know, F w F V F S. The final thing to know is. F delay, which if there is a signalized intersection, pedestrian delay at signals, if there is a signalized intersection, you already, we already know how to calculate the delay signalized intersections, right? Uh, this is the, uh, uh, cycling minus the effective green time squared by vice the cycling. We have already explained it to you previously. In addition to that, if you, uh, if you want to calculate. The co the vehicles crossing the crosswalk and the volume. Uh, and that is the volume of the vehicles, Berlin per minute, that is crossing the crosswalk. Okay. So that is crossing the crosswalk. If you calculate that, you already know the number of number of lanes. So you can then determine the delay, which is given by this formula. Okay. Here, you will determine the count here. You will determine the delay. And if you use this formula, you will get what is called the F delay factor. So now, you know, all of the four factors, you just plug it in, in this formula, add it to this constant, and you will know the intersection, but it's still level of service score. We will give you, uh, we will give you, uh, uh, an example of a problem. So you can then relate it back to the formula rate and back to this, uh, individual formulas. And, uh, that will make you understand it much better before we do that. Let us also give you an example of how to determine the, uh, pedestrian level of service score for the link. Remember, again, link is between two signalized intersections, right? If it is two signalized intersections, the distance between that it's called a link. If there is no signalized intersection, then you start from one single intersection and vote. Till you reach a signalized intersection, that entire length is called the link. So the personal level of, so a personal level of service score of the link depends upon two things. That is the pedestrian level of service score for the intersection, which we have already looked at. And now then it is also depending on the flow characteristic modeling of the average piece. Now, this also depends upon the average space. Now, the minute you are talking about link. Because of the link number of people will be walking. So the average space available for the people to walk that also determines the pedestrian level of service score for the link. So two elements in this, uh, pedestrian level of service score, similar to, uh, the intersection calculation, right. That we looked at and the other one is the pedestrian level of service for the average space. So based on those two, the worst of that, we'll give you the pedestrian level of service link. For a personal level of service score for that link. Similarly, uh, just as for the, uh, intersection, you had, uh, four factors to determine the, uh, pedestrian level of service here, you have only three factors. Uh, the constant, you have a constant term as well, which is different in this case. But again, let us quickly look at how do you calculate these three factors? You already know these about them, right? This is the width. This is the vehicle volume of vehicles. And this is the speed of vehicles along that. So these three components are, uh, included. And then for the score, you know, that, uh, for the, uh, average space or, you know, that we are always have to calculate the effective VIT is effective. It is reduced. If you consider parking, right, you already know how to calculate effective width. So if you start looking at each of these factors again, well, FW is there this time is the sidewalk with remember last time when we were calculating the interstate, but it's the level of service Corps that FW was the crosswalk or the width of the road that you're trying to cross in this case, it is the width of the sidewalk because you're, you're talking about a link fed means the volume of the vehicles and FSU means the speed of the vehicle. So what this tells you is that. The link on which you're walking or example the foot part on which you're walking, the pedestrian level of service, even though you are walking on a segregated pedestrian facility, it depends upon the volume of vehicles that is running on the adjacent street, right. And also the speed of the vehicles. So you, uh, you should not always segregate, uh, should not always think that putting a sidewalk on a high-speed road will, uh, entice more people to walk on it. Because it will not because the pedestrian level of service score usually goes up, uh, BLOS score going up, usually meaning that that level of service is going down. So if you have a high-speed vehicles, uh, along, along strike alongside a footpath, usually the score will be high because you know, these are all additive functions and the score being high usually means that the PLO is low. Okay. That is what that is. How squadron PLO is that related to each other. So if you have to calculate again, if you look one by one, if you have to calculate the factor that, uh, um, uh, that influences the sidewalk width, you have to know first, this is again, given by this quadratic, uh, or this, uh, simple linear equation. You have to know, uh, the effective width. The effective way to the outside, through lane bike lane and the shoulder. So we'll tell you, uh, in a diagram in the coming slides, how, uh, what is, what do we mean by the outside, through Lynn, by clean and shorter, but it should be, we are calculating the effective width basis. outside traffic lid. Okay. Not the ones inside, inside, meaning the traffic lanes that is closer to the medium. Outside meaning the traffic lane that is closer to the foot path. Okay. So that wit then you have to have the effective width of the combined bicycle lane and shoulder bicycle linen shoulder. So this is the effective combined with the bicycle lane and shoulder. Whereas this is the effective with the outside through-line bicycle lane and shoulder, uh, finally, uh, or not finally, but there are other two items, which is the buffer, the wit the buffer that is available. Uh, if there are any plantations or anything that is, uh, on the, uh, um, uh, between the vehicles and the pedestrians and the other one is the, uh, effective wit, which we'll know, we'll tell you what it is. Okay. Uh, then finally, for the other two, uh, factors, uh, for the vehicle, uh, volume factor on the vehicle speed factor for the volume factor. Again, we M you have to determine that mid-block Florida. Okay. You know, already how to calculate flow rates. So you are to determined the mid-block Florida. So at the middle of the link, okay. The middle of the link, you will determine the florid and, uh, for a speed again, we'll tell you whether it is the 85th percentile speed or which speed you are to calculate, but they are again given by the, these three formulas. So here it is, uh, while calculating FW. When we say, uh, WV or the outside lane, this is what we are meaning of the sidewalk is here. And then you have a buffer, some kind of plantation, and then you have your carbon gutter here. So then the first one, maybe just the shoulder or the parking lane, then you may have a bicycle lane and then maybe your outside travel lane is starting. So you have to, this, this entire distance is called your WV. If you want to only know the WL effective with the bicycle lane and the shoulder, that is your w L okay. Uh, there's PPK factor is the parking, the proportion of, uh, the proportion of the distance that is, uh, uh, covered by parking proportion. Just the proportion of the lane that is covered by part. Alright. Now, there are some certain conditions that you have to take into account while you are developing these with factors. And these are standard conditions that have been again, um, based on, um, certain urban conditions in the United States, uh, because we don't have specific, uh, specifics for our country or for our. Uh, Asian, uh, uh, environment. We will still, uh, go with these, but this is for your understanding, uh, maybe when you're conducting field experiments in the, uh, in your city or in any, uh, different parts of India, these factors may change, but you have to at least have an understanding of how do you determine this. If, for example, the proper, there is no parking, whereas this, if the parking, uh, at least a 25% of it. Is covered by parking no more than 25% of it's covered by parking. Then how do you determine those effective wits they're given by this condition or they're given this table and, uh, it is just plug and play. Uh, you just have to pick which condition you are, uh, dealing with, or you just have to determine simple, uh, uh, For Fs again, in this case, we are just determining the vehicle running speed. We are not determining the 85th percentile speed. So it is very, uh, you just have to calculate the vehicle. Running speed, may conduct a certain spot speed studies in order to understand what the vehicle is. Speed is running speed is for volume. All you have to know is the number of through lanes on the street, in the direction of the travel being considered. If you know the number of. Uh, number of, uh, through lanes, you are already calculating the volume of vehicles per 15 minutes per lane. If you plug in those, you will get the factor of volume. Uh, now that the other two things that were included in the FW term one was remember the adjusted available sidewalk width. So you have to, there is a factor that you're to multiply the buffer with. Okay. WB was the buffer of it. If there was a plantation or plantation that with this called the buffer between the roadway and the sidewalk with that buffer, which you have to have a multiply that with the factor, which tells you the available sidewalk with that factor multiplied gives you this, uh, this element, uh, similarly for the last element, uh, I'm sorry that this factor is the presence of the continuous barrier for at least. Uh, three feet high. All right. So let us make it again, clear you first have to, for this term, you have to understand what is the width between the roadblock or between the roadway and the sidewalk that is the buffer with once, you know, the buffer width, if you feel, or if you see the presence of that buffer, uh, for a continuous, uh, continuously, and that buffer is at least three feet high, then this factor, this FB factor is. 5.37, if it is not, then the, every factor is one. So that is a very empirical, so you can understand it. It's a very empirical way of doing things. Uh, these were done in two or three locations in the United States, uh, and based on those site-specific locations, this formula was developed. Okay. So if the buffer exists and it exists continuously and the buffer and the width, the height of the buffer is, uh, at least three feet. Then this factor is 5.37. Otherwise the factories. Only considered us one. Finally, the last term is the adjusted available sidewalk, width adjusted. We'll we'll let you know what is the adjusted versus what is the available sidewalk width. Along with the adjusted, you have a sidewalk with coefficient that you have to multiply this width, which is given by the simple farm, love this. So w once you calculate FW, once you called it a V and once you call it like Fs, You just plug it in, in this formula added to the constant, the constant, you will get the BLOS, uh, off the link. Okay. Remember, we are talking about the lowest score of the link. No, again, going back, you remember that for the link, you have to have two different PLRs the calculations while is that we have just calculated. The other one is. Based on the pedestrian space. You already know how to calculate the pedestrian space, uh, for the number of pedestrians per hour divided by the effective sidewalk width. We'll give you the pedestrian flow per foot per sidewalk. With average walking speed, speed. More pedestrians are they're more crowded. So, you know, the average pedestrian speed, you know, the original pedestrian florid divide, the average pedestrian speed by the pedestrian florid, which gives you the pedestrians space. Okay. But it's in the space has given by square foot, but pedestrian, how much space, individual pedestrians need square-foot, but pedestrian, they were in the average walking speed by the pedestrian flow. Remember the basic equations flow is equal to speed into speed by it is either speed into density, or it is since density and space is different. It is speed by space, right? So that is the basic. Uh, relationship. So based on that relationship, you are calculating the pedestrian space. Now, if you know the pedestrian space and if you know your pedestrian level of service score, that you've calculated for the links you can, then for each given pedestrian space, you will have a corresponding Dustin level of service score. Right. So you'll see that, uh, it is very difficult to achieve it. Pedestrian level of service score a person level of service of E because that is only available in this condition when the score is less than two and when the space's greater than 60, otherwise in any of these, you will not have a level of service. So usually we don't design for a level of service.