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Comments about The design phase - The Design Phase: factors to be considered when designing the output requirements

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- Module: The design phase
- Topic: The Design Phase: factors to be considered when designing the output requirements

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  • Assel Satpayeva Kazakhstan The design process is a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes. The steps tend to get articulated, subdivided, and/or illustrated in a variety of different ways, but regardless, they generally reflect certain core principles regarding the underlying concepts and their respective sequence and interrelationship. Also, the process is highly iterative - i.e. parts of the process often need to be repeated many times before production of a product can begin - though the part(s) that get iterated and the number of such cycles in any given project can be highly variable.
    2014-10-29 05:10:24

  • Kenneth M Akahoho Ghana In a top down approach to system design, the programmer will start by identifying the output that the system will need to produce. There are a number of possible output formats that must be considered, including such items as: printer, screen, plotter, audio, email, links to web pages, automated fax facilities and computer output microfilm. There are many more possible output devices that could be incorporated into any system - it will depend on the technology that is available to the developers. There are sound reasons for starting the system development with the design of the output. The system will be implemented to help improve efficiencies or to solve a problem. In order to do this, the the first step will be to determine what can be done to help the situation. Once this has been done, a clear picture of what has to be produced can be identified. This will shape the output requirements of the system. While the output may seem to be the last part of the system that should be developed, it should not be. In order to make the system a success it must be able to produce the outcomes that can solve the problem, therefore the output required needs to be identified early in the process. Once the output has been identified, it will place constraints on the system. These constraints will include requirements of data to be collected to produce the output, and to the limitations imposed by the technologies used to create the output. While it may sound minor, the manner in which output is to be created and/or displayed is actually of great significance to the design of a computer system. This is because it can quickly change the nature of the resources that are required by the system to produce the output. For example, if the system is to collect pictures that are displayed over the web, then the file size will not have to be as large as those that will be printed. Some of the major constraints on output include: Printers - the print quality, e.g. Laser/inkjet/colour, and the nature of the information to be produced. For example, if a receipt is to be printed and needs to be made in duplicate, then an impact printer will need to be used or the item printed twice. Screen - If the output is primarily to be screen based, then the screen will impose a number of limitations on the output. The output will need to be designed to fit into the screen size. If the screen is monochrome, then colour cannot be used, etc.
    2014-10-26 11:10:37

  • Samuel Kofi Odoi Ghana How can this system assist the project manager if the work is only outdoors need, who then monitors the system?
    2014-10-20 04:10:25

  • Ralph Webster South Africa n a top down approach to system design, the programmer will start by identifying the output that the system will need to produce. There are a number of possible output formats that must be considered, including such items as: printer, screen, plotter, audio, email, links to web pages, automated fax facilities and computer output microfilm. There are many more possible output devices that could IT IS LINKED TO THE GOA STATEMENT AND FEASIBILITY?
    2014-10-19 10:10:12

  • temitayo paul folorunsho Nigeria go
    2014-10-16 16:10:18

  • George Fragos Greece Except programmer who other can start by identifying the output that a system will need to produce?
    2014-10-01 09:10:09

    • Kenneth M Akahoho Ghana In a top down approach to system design, the programmer will start by identifying the output that the system will need to produce. There are a number of possible output formats that must be considered, including such items as: printer, screen, plotter, audio, email, links to web pages, automated fax facilities and computer output microfilm. There are many more possible output devices that could be incorporated into any system - it will depend on the technology that is available to the developers
      2014-10-26 11:10:09
  • ANNETTE ROBINSON United States of America So Design would be a little easier than the other steps?
    2014-09-09 13:09:09

    • Kenneth M Akahoho Ghana no
      2014-10-26 11:10:01
    • neil mafi Zimbabwe not unless the detail aquired in the analysis is precise... but arguably yes.. setting the expected outcome is the cake end
      2014-10-07 16:10:26
  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:16

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:01

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:45

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:24

  • Olanrewaju Akinseye Nigeria Limitation is needed to regulate the quality and authenticity of the output products.
    2014-07-08 13:07:08

  • ToeToe Aung Singapore Why we need to put the number of limitation on the output?
    2014-06-29 07:06:35

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan In order to regulate the quality of the output.
      2014-08-25 18:08:35
  • Satu Korhonen Finland What isnthe top down approach?
    2014-06-26 14:06:16

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan To design oupt requirement.
      2014-08-25 18:08:19
  • Reza Abbasi Iran What is Some of the major constraints on output ?
    2014-06-22 15:06:47

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan The type of output required.
      2014-08-25 18:08:10
    • Daniel Chol Koknyin South Sudan Printers - the print quality and the nature of the information to be produced.
      2014-07-05 21:07:12
  • Reza Abbasi Iran What is Some of the major constraints on output ?
    2014-06-20 01:06:27

  • Annette Weizbauer Germany Which is designing the output as a first step so important?
    2014-06-16 15:06:41

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan Yes it is the standard to be aimed at.
      2014-08-25 18:08:52
    • Glyn Chapman United Kingdom By designing the output factors of the system first you are there for resolving the problems you will inherently encounter that will put limitations on the system some examples are as stated above.
      2014-07-22 17:07:25
    • Reza Abbasi Iran This is because it can quickly change the nature of the resources that are required by the system to produce the output
      2014-06-20 01:06:50
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