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ALISON: Diploma in Project Management

Questions & Answers about The planning phase - The planning phase - establishing control mechanisms

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- Module: The planning phase
- Topic: The planning phase - establishing control mechanisms

Latest Questions

  • Christian Festus Qatar What are the issues that a feasibility study will look at ?
    2014-08-30 10:08:20

  • Samuel Kofi Odoi Ghana How many people must take care of this positions and how would the interviews be?
    2014-08-18 00:08:16

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan Through follow up, supervisors and manager.
      2014-08-25 16:08:11
  • Vikram Vasant Rotkar United Kingdom What if the control system goes hay way?
    2014-07-21 18:07:23

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan It can be improved.
      2014-08-25 16:08:42
  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:02

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:53

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:45

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:33

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:17

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:04

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:00

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Management support Management reporting systems A large category of information systems comprises those designed to support the management of an organization. Those systems rely on data obtained by transaction processing systems, as well as data acquired outside the organization (such as business intelligence gleaned on the Internet) and data provided by business partners, suppliers, and customers. Information systems support all levels of management, from those in charge of short-term schedules and budgets for small work groups to those concerned with long-term plans and budgets for the entire organization. Management reporting systems provide routine, detailed, and voluminous information reports specific to each manager's areas of responsibility. Generally, these reports focus on past and present performance, rather than projecting future performance. To prevent information overload, reports are automatically sent only under exceptional circumstances or at the specific request of a manager. Decision support systems All information systems support decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. The two principal varieties of decision support systems are model-driven and data-driven. In a model-driven decision support system, a preprogrammed model is applied to a limited data set, such as a sales database for the present quarter. During a typical session, an analyst or sales manager will conduct a dialog with this decision support system by specifying a number of “what-if” scenarios. For example, in order to establish a selling price for a new product, the sales manager may use a marketing decision support system. Such a system contains a preprogrammed model relating various factors—the price of the product, the cost of goods, and the promotion expense—to the projected sales volume over the first five years on the market. By supplying different product prices to the model, the manager can compare predicted results and select the most profitable selling price. The primary objective of data-driven decision support systems is to analyze large pools of data, accumulated over long periods of time in “data warehouses,” in a process known as data mining. Data mining searches for significant patterns, such as sequences (buying a new house, followed by a new dinner table) and clusters (large families and van sales), with which decisions can be made. Data-driven decision support systems include a variety of statistical models and rely on various artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, neural networks, and intelligent agents. An important category of decision support systems enables a group of decision makers to work together without necessarily being in the same place at the same time. These group decision systems include software tools for brainstorming and reaching consensus. Another category, geographic information systems, can help analyze and display data by using digitized maps. By looking at a geographic distribution of mortgage loans, for example, one can easily establish a pattern of discrimination. Executive information systems Executive information systems make a variety of critical information readily available in a highly summarized and convenient form. Senior managers characteristically employ many informal sources of information, however, so that formal, computerized information systems are of limited assistance. Nevertheless, this assistance is important for the chief executive officer, senior and executive vice presidents, and the board of directors to monitor the performance of the company, assess the business environment, and develop strategic directions for the future. In particular, these executives need to compare their organization's performance with that of its competitors and investigate general economic trends in regions or countries for potential expansion. Often relying on multiple media, executive information systems give their users an opportunity to “drill down” from summary data to increasingly detailed and focused information.
    2014-07-20 20:07:45

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan What are you trying to explain here?
      2014-08-25 16:08:50
  • ToeToe Aung Singapore A clear set of procedures and techniques must be established for the whole life cycle of project.
    2014-06-27 14:06:57

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan That is true statement and my question to you is how?
      2014-08-25 16:08:37
  • Satu Korhonen Finland What methods can be used to gather information?
    2014-06-25 15:06:44

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan Survey and assessment.
      2014-08-25 16:08:17
  • Reza Abbasi Iran Why is a clear set of procedures and techniques needed to ensure that proper controls exist on any data gathered in subsequent stages?
    2014-06-22 16:06:25

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan For guidance and direction so as to achieve objectives.
      2014-08-25 16:08:18
  • Reza Abbasi Iran Why is a clear set of procedures and techniques needed to ensure that proper controls exist on any data gathered in subsequent stages?
    2014-06-22 16:06:37

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan You got the answer down there and I replied it up there.
      2014-08-25 16:08:12
  • Annette Weizbauer Germany Why is a clear set of procedures and techniques needed to ensure that proper controls exist on any data gathered in subsequent stages?
    2014-06-15 14:06:27

    • Yai Deng Yai South Sudan The same question as answered above.
      2014-08-25 16:08:35
    • Reza Abbasi Iran to ensure that it is valid
      2014-06-20 01:06:59
    • Parhalad Saini India To ensure that it is valid.
      2014-06-18 05:06:29
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