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The role of the human resources manager

Questions & Answers about Human resource management - The role of the human resources manager

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- Module: Human resource management
- Topic: The role of the human resources manager

Latest Questions

  • Arsalan Jamal Pakistan is a good hr manager has to keep an eye on every employees performance disturbing the operational process of an organization?
    2014-04-18 13:04:06

  • Naay Martins Brazil Como você pode garantir uma abordagem orientada para as pessoas "é realizado com competência?
    2014-04-13 02:04:42

  • Sharon Honey United Kingdom How can you ensure a 'people oriented' approach is carried out competently?
    2014-04-11 12:04:17

    • Christopher Hlope South Africa You can only ensure that when you look at employee productivity, the general morale of the workforce and how many employees are leaving the organisation and what reasons do they give in leaving
      2014-04-19 12:04:00
  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Modern interest in income and employment theory was triggered by the severity of the Great Depression of the 1930s in the United States and Europe. In its failure to explain the persistent high levels of unemployment and the low levels of business productivity, the prevailing school of classical economics lacked solutions for the problems of that era. John Maynard Keynes offered new thinking on income and employment theory with the publication of General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936). Building on his theory, Keynesians have stressed the relationship between income, output, and expenditure. Since transactions are two-sided—in that one person's income is another person's expenditure—the relationship could be expressed in the form of a simple equation: Y = O = D, where Y is the national income (i.e., purchasing power), O is the value of the national output, and D is national expenditure. What this equation means is that effective demand is equal to income as well as to output. Since consumers can either spend or save their income, Y = C + S, where C is consumption and S is savings. Similarly, on the output side, production is either sold to final customers or invested in inventory or new capital equipment, (such as production plants or machinery). So O = C + I, where C represents sales to final customers and I investment. Thus, C + S = C + I and, therefore, S = I. However, while savings and investment may thus be equated from an accounting standpoint, in fact, actual planned savings and planned investment may differ in real life. Keynesians say that economic instability stems from this discrepancy between savings and investment. Suppose, for example, that in a given period savings rise above their previous levels. The effect will be a reduction in present demand with a prospect of increased future demand. If, by coincidence, additional capital formation (investment, such as in inventory) rises by the same amount, productive resources will continue to operate at capacity; there will be no change in the level of activity, and the economy will remain in equilibrium. However, if capital formation does not rise, then the demand for labour will fall and, assuming that wages do not fall, some workers will become unemployed and lose some of their current income. The fall in incomes further reduces consumer demand while also reducing the rate of savings. Provided manufacturers do not alter their investment plans, equilibrium will be established at a lower level of income. In reality, then, it is not savings that are unstable but the level of investment: a fall in investment and an increase in savings will both produce a dampening effect on the economy. Conversely, a rise in investment or an increase in consumer spending will tend to stimulate the economy. This example illustrates how changes in savings or investment will affect changes in national income, but it does not show the extent of those changes. The actual degree of change is determined by what Keynes called the “consumption function” (that is, the level of spending that is based on disposable income). Keynes's primary aim in developing his theory was to show that, under certain conditions the economy could become stuck in a disequilibrium, with productive resources in surplus (i.e., high level of unemployment) but income and output unable to rise sufficiently to reach an equilibrium. Put simply, Keynes argued that, when business was unwilling or unable to increase investment because of low demand, additional government spending could spur new spending and eventually pull the economy out of disequilibrium. Keynesians believe that fiscal policy—such as an increase in government expenditure or a reduction in taxation—is the most effective way to offset the lack of private demand.
    2014-04-09 20:04:04

  • Jones Hanungu Munang'andu Zambia Modern interest in income and employment theory was triggered by the severity of the Great Depression of the 1930s in the United States and Europe. In its failure to explain the persistent high levels of unemployment and the low levels of business productivity, the prevailing school of classical economics lacked solutions for the problems of that era. John Maynard Keynes offered new thinking on income and employment theory with the publication of General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936). Building on his theory, Keynesians have stressed the relationship between income, output, and expenditure. Since transactions are two-sided—in that one person's income is another person's expenditure—the relationship could be expressed in the form of a simple equation: Y = O = D, where Y is the national income (i.e., purchasing power), O is the value of the national output, and D is national expenditure. What this equation means is that effective demand is equal to income as well as to output. Since consumers can either spend or save their income, Y = C + S, where C is consumption and S is savings. Similarly, on the output side, production is either sold to final customers or invested in inventory or new capital equipment, (such as production plants or machinery). So O = C + I, where C represents sales to final customers and I investment. Thus, C + S = C + I and, therefore, S = I. However, while savings and investment may thus be equated from an accounting standpoint, in fact, actual planned savings and planned investment may differ in real life. Keynesians say that economic instability stems from this discrepancy between savings and investment. Suppose, for example, that in a given period savings rise above their previous levels. The effect will be a reduction in present demand with a prospect of increased future demand. If, by coincidence, additional capital formation (investment, such as in inventory) rises by the same amount, productive resources will continue to operate at capacity; there will be no change in the level of activity, and the economy will remain in equilibrium. However, if capital formation does not rise, then the demand for labour will fall and, assuming that wages do not fall, some workers will become unemployed and lose some of their current income. The fall in incomes further reduces consumer demand while also reducing the rate of savings. Provided manufacturers do not alter their investment plans, equilibrium will be established at a lower level of income. In reality, then, it is not savings that are unstable but the level of investment: a fall in investment and an increase in savings will both produce a dampening effect on the economy. Conversely, a rise in investment or an increase in consumer spending will tend to stimulate the economy. This example illustrates how changes in savings or investment will affect changes in national income, but it does not show the extent of those changes. The actual degree of change is determined by what Keynes called the “consumption function” (that is, the level of spending that is based on disposable income). Keynes's primary aim in developing his theory was to show that, under certain conditions the economy could become stuck in a disequilibrium, with productive resources in surplus (i.e., high level of unemployment) but income and output unable to rise sufficiently to reach an equilibrium. Put simply, Keynes argued that, when business was unwilling or unable to increase investment because of low demand, additional government spending could spur new spending and eventually pull the economy out of disequilibrium. Keynesians believe that fiscal policy—such as an increase in government expenditure or a reduction in taxation—is the most effective way to offset the lack of private demand.
    2014-04-09 20:04:38

  • Danson Ottawa Kenya What are some of the qualities of a good human resource manager?
    2014-04-07 07:04:28

    • Danson Ottawa Kenya i think he or she should be honest, integral and have good accountability skills
      2014-04-07 07:04:13
  • KEHINDE AHMED ADETONA Gambia What are the negative effects of out sourcing the role of the human resource manager
    2014-04-02 01:04:57

  • Josephine Daisy India IF THE EMPLOYEE IS NOT HAVING HOLIDAY AND HE WAS SICK WHAT THE MANAGER HAS TO DO
    2014-03-31 04:03:36

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